시장보고서
상품코드
1146482

전자 피부 패치 시장(2023-2033년)

Electronic Skin Patches 2023-2033

발행일: | 리서치사: IDTechEx Ltd. | 페이지 정보: 영문 233 Slides | 배송안내 : 1-2일 (영업일 기준)

※ 본 상품은 영문 자료로 한글과 영문 목차에 불일치하는 내용이 있을 경우 영문을 우선합니다. 정확한 검토를 위해 영문목차를 참고해주시기 바랍니다.

전자 피부 패치 시장은 2033년까지 연간 270억 달러 이상의 가치까지 성장할 것으로 예측됩니다. IDTechEx 사의 '전자 피부 패치 시장' 보고서는 전자 피부 패치의 시장, 기술 및 플레이어를 조사합니다.

전자 피부 패치는 피부에 부착되는 웨어러블 제품입니다.

전자 요소는 센서, 액추에이터, 프로세서 및 통신과 같은 전자 기능의 통합을 포함하여 제품이 연결되고 "스마트"해질 수 있도록 합니다. 여러 면에서 전자 피부 패치는 궁극의 웨어러블 전자 장치 역할을 하여 최소한의 방해와 최대의 편안함으로 편의성을 증대시킵니다.

보고서는 전자 피부 패치의 각 응용 분야를 차례로 살펴보고 관련 기술, 제품 유형, 경쟁 환경, 업계 플레이어, 가격, 과거 수익 및 전자 피부 패치 시장 예측에 대해 논의합니다. 당뇨병 관리(CGM 및 인슐린 펌프), 심혈관 모니터링 장치(MCT, 홀터 모니터 및 이벤트 모니터), 일반 환자 모니터링(입원 환자 및 외래 환자 모두), 온도 감지, 약물 및 미용 전달 패치, 전기 자극 장치, 땀 감지 및 상처 치료, 동작 감지 등과 같은 기타 새로운 옵션이 포함됩니다.

보고서는 또한 새로운 재료 옵션과 제조 공정의 기초가 되는 기술에 초점을 맞춘 전자 피부 패치의 제조에 대해서도 논의합니다. 2010년까지 연구된 각 제품 부문의 과거 수익 데이터가 포함되어 있으며 더 큰 부문에 대한 회사 별 데이터가 포함되어 있습니다. 보고서에는 각 주요 응용 분야에 대한 10 년 동안의 상세한 시장 예측도 포함되어 있습니다.

목차

1. 요약

2. 소개

3. 피부 패치를 통한 당뇨병 관리

4. 심장 리듬 모니터링 피부 패치

5. 일반 환자 모니터링 피부 패치

6. 온도 감지 피부 패치

7. 피부 패치로 전기 자극

8. 이온삼투 피부 패치

9. 땀 감지 피부 패치

10. 다른 전자 피부 헝겊 조각 신청

11. 전자 피부 패치 제조

12. 시장 예측

  • 12.1.1. 전자 피부 패치 글로벌 시장 연간 수익 기록 데이터 2010-2022
  • 12.1.2. 전자 피부 패치 세계 시장 연간 수익 과거 데이터 및 예측 2010-2033
  • 12.1.3. 전자 피부 패치 세계 시장 연간 수익 과거 데이터 및 예측 2010-2033 - 당뇨병 제외
  • 12.2. 당뇨병 관리 피부 패치 시장 전망
    • 12.2.1. 예측 : 소개
    • 12.2.2. 예측 방법: 당뇨병 관리의 회사 수익
    • 12.2.3. 당뇨병 관리용 피부 패치: 시장 예측 2022-2033
    • 12.2.4. CGM: 연간 수익 예측 2022-2033
    • 12.2.5. CGM: 방법론 및 가정
    • 12.2.6. CGM: 제2형 및 당뇨병 전증에 의한 예상 섭취량
    • 12.2.7. CGM: 마일스톤
    • 12.2.8. 인구 채택 비율에 따른 CGM
    • 12.2.9. 패치 펌프 수익 예측 2023-2033
  • 12.3. 심장 리듬 모니터링 피부 패치 시장 예측
    • 12.3.1. 심장 리듬 관리 예측 방법론
    • 12.3.2. 심장 리듬 관리 글로벌 역사 시장 데이터 2010-2021
    • 12.3.3. 심장 리듬 관리 글로벌 시장 예측 2021-2033
    • 12.3.4. 심장 리듬 관리 세계 시장 예측 2010-2033
    • 12.3.5. 심장 리듬 관리 세계 시장 예측 2010-2033
  • 12.4. 일반 환자 모니터링 피부 패치 시장 예측
    • 12.4.1. 일반적인 환자 모니터링 예측 방법론
    • 12.4.2. 일반 환자 모니터링 피부 패치 글로벌 시장 예측 2023-2033
    • 12.4.3. 일반 환자 모니터링 피부 패치 글로벌 시장 과거 데이터 및 예측 2010-2033
  • 12.5. 온도 감지 피부 패치 시장 전망
    • 12.5.1. 온도 감지 피부 패치 글로벌 시장 예측 2023-2033
  • 12.6. 전기 자극 피부 패치 시장 전망
    • 12.6.1. 전기 자극 피부 패치 : 시장 데이터 (2010-2020)
    • 12.6.2. 전기 자극 피부 패치: 시장 예측(2021-2033)
    • 12.6.3. 전기 자극 피부 패치 : 시장 데이터 및 예측 (2010-2033)
  • 12.7. 이온삼투 피부 패치 시장 전망
    • 12.7.1. 이온삼투 요법 피부 패치: 시장 예측(2021-2033)
    • 12.7.2. 이온 삼투 요법 피부 패치 : 시장 데이터 및 예측 (2010-2033)

13. 회사 프로필

BHI 22.11.07

Title:
Electronic Skin Patches 2023-2033
The most comprehensive assessment on the commercialization of flexible, wearable electronic skin patches spanning 13 applications including historic data, 10-year market forecast, interview-based player profiles, and technology analysis.

The electronic skin patches market will be worth over US$27bn per year by 2033.

This report characterizes the markets, technologies, and players in electronic skin patches. With coverage across 13 application areas, historic electronic skin patch market data from 2010-2022 and electronic skin patch market forecasts from 2023 to 2033, it is the most comprehensive study compiled for this product area. It reveals significant opportunity, with the electronic skin patch market forecast to grow to over US$27B by 2033.

Electronic skin patches are wearable products attached to the skin. The electronic element involves the integration of electronic functionality such as sensors, actuators, processors, and communication, allowing products to become connected and "smart". In many ways, electronic skin patches act as the ultimate wearable electronic devices, augmenting the wearer with minimal encumbrance and maximum comfort. As such, interest in electronic skin patches soared as a by-product of the significant hype and market growth around "wearables" starting in 2014.

However, several product types within the sector transcend this hype. Electronic skin patch product areas in diabetes management and cardiac rhythm monitoring have superseded incumbent options in established markets to create billions of dollars of new revenue each year for the companies at the forefront of this wave. However, success is not ubiquitous; each market discussed within this report sits within a unique ecosystem, with different players, drivers, limitations, and history to build on.

As such, the report looks at each of the application areas for electronic skin patches in turn, discussing the relevant technology, product types, competitive landscape, industry players, pricing, historic revenue, and electronic skin patch market forecasts. The areas covered include diabetes management (CGM and insulin pumps), cardiovascular monitoring devices (MCT, Holter monitors, and event monitors), general patient monitoring (both inpatient and outpatient), temperature sensing, drug and cosmetic delivery patches, electrical stimulation devices, sweat sensing, and other emerging options such as wound care, motion sensing, and more. The report also discusses manufacturing of electronic skin patches, including focus on emerging material options as well as the technology underlying the manufacturing process. The report contains historic revenue data for each of the product sectors studied back to 2010, including data by company for the larger sectors. The report also contains detailed market forecasting over 10 years for each of the key application areas.

                           Source: Electronic Skin Patches 2023-2033.

The research behind the report has been compiled over several years by IDTechEx analysts. It follows existing coverage of areas such as wearable technology, flexible electronics, stretchable and conformal electronics, electronic textiles, advanced wound care, bioelectronics, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, sensors, and other medical devices. The methodology involved a mixture of primary and secondary research, with a key focus on speaking to executives and scientists from companies developing commercial electronic skin patches. As such, the report analyses over 130 companies and projects, both current and historic, including over 40 profiles and case studies.

Unique position and experience behind the report

IDTechEx is afforded a particularly unique position in covering this topic. The analyst team builds on decades of experience covering emerging technology markets, and particularly areas, such as flexible electronics, which are central to electronic skin patches. This has been historically supported by IDTechEx's parallel activities in organising the leading industry conferences and exhibitions covering flexible and wearable electronics, as well as smaller events covering specific innovation trends such as for healthcare sensors or related areas. IDTechEx has the unique ability to curate a network in these topic areas, facilitating the analysis in this report.

This report provides critical market intelligence about the product sector and each of the 13 electronic skin patch application sectors involved. This includes:

A review of the context and technology behind electronic skin patch products:

  • History and context for the product area and each subsector
  • General overview of important technologies within each sector
  • Overall look at electronic skin patches trends and themes within the product area
  • Benchmarking and analysis of different players throughout

Full market characterization for each major electronic skin patch product:

  • Review of the diabetes management landscape, including historical context, the rise of CGM, development of insulin pumps and patch pumps, closed loop systems and development towards non-invasive glucose monitoring
  • Review of the ecosystem for cardiovascular skin patches, including their context within competitive products, the differentiation within the sector (e.g. Holter, Event, Extended Holter, and MCT), and the reimbursement and funding scenario.
  • Vital sign monitoring more generally, including technology and business model reviews across players in the industry and the growing use in clinical trials
  • Reviews of other niche sectors, including various temperature monitoring use cases, iontophoresis, electrical stimulation and more

Market analysis throughout:

  • Reviews of electronic skin patch players throughout each key sector, analyzed from over 130 companies
  • Historic electronic skin patch market data from 2010-2022 for 11 sectors
  • Market forecasts from 2023-2033 for 13 sectors, including full narrative, limitations, and methodologies for each

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Scope of the report
  • 1.2. Benefits of electronic skin patches as a form factor
  • 1.3. Market push and pull drivers
  • 1.4. Skin patch applications overview
  • 1.5. Diabetes management devices: electronic skin patches increase patient comfort
  • 1.6. Diabetes management device roadmap: Glucose sensors
  • 1.7. Key points for diabetes management devices: continuous glucose monitoring
  • 1.8. Diabetes management device roadmap: Insulin delivery
  • 1.9. Key points for diabetes management devices: insulin delivery
  • 1.10. Atrial fibrillation: electronic skin patches addresses key industry pain points
  • 1.11. Diagnosis process for atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias
  • 1.12. Key points for cardiac monitoring: Holter, mobile cardiac telemetry & event monitor
  • 1.13. Vital sign monitoring: electronic skin patches increase patient mobility
  • 1.14. Emerging application: Decentralized clinical trials
  • 1.15. Key points for general vital sign monitoring
  • 1.16. Other applications: temperature, electrical stimulation, iontophoresis and sweat sensing
  • 1.17. Electronic skin patch manufacturing process
  • 1.18. Material requirements for an electronic skin patch
  • 1.19. Electronic skin patches global market annual revenue historic data and forecast 2010-2033
  • 1.20. Electronic skin patches global market annual revenue forecast 2022-2033

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. How to use this report
  • 2.2. Definitions
  • 2.3. The case for skin patches: augmenting the human body
  • 2.4. Electronic skin patches within wearable technology progress
  • 2.5. Benefits of electronic skin patches as a form factor
  • 2.6. Market push and pull drivers
  • 2.7. Key milestones in the history of skin patches
  • 2.8. COVID-19 effect on electronic skin patches
  • 2.9. Privacy and IT challenges
  • 2.10. Reimbursement drives commercial business models
  • 2.11. Reimbursement codes (US)
  • 2.12. Skin patch applications overview
  • 2.13. Skin patch applications overview
  • 2.14. Skin patch applications overview

3. DIABETES MANAGEMENT VIA SKIN PATCHES

  • 3.1.1. Background: Introduction to diabetes
  • 3.1.2. The prevalence of diabetes
  • 3.1.3. Diabetes management ecosystem
  • 3.1.4. Background: Diabetes on the rise
  • 3.1.5. Diabetes management device roadmap: Summary
  • 3.1.6. Electronic skin patches in diabetes management: company profiles
  • 3.2. Continuous glucose monitoring
    • 3.2.1. Diabetes management device roadmap: Glucose sensors
    • 3.2.2. Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) take the form of skin patches
    • 3.2.3. CGMs are superseding test strips
    • 3.2.4. CGM reimbursement for type 2 is currently limited
    • 3.2.5. CGM usage in hospitals
    • 3.2.6. Anatomy of a typical CGM device
    • 3.2.7. CGM: Technology
    • 3.2.8. CGM sensor manufacturing and anatomy
    • 3.2.9. Comparison metrics for CGM devices
    • 3.2.10. Example: Accuracy of CGM devices over time
    • 3.2.11. CGM: Overview of key players
    • 3.2.12. Abbott Laboratories: CGM business
    • 3.2.13. Dexcom: Introduction
    • 3.2.14. Medtronic: Introduction
    • 3.2.15. Ascensia, POCTech and Yuwell
    • 3.2.16. Senseonics
    • 3.2.17. Non-invasive glucose monitoring
    • 3.2.18. Conclusions for continuous glucose monitors
    • 3.2.19. Insulin pumps
    • 3.2.20. Insulin delivery: Introduction
    • 3.2.21. Diabetes management device roadmap: Insulin delivery
  • 3.3. Insulin Pumps
    • 3.3.1. Insulin patch pumps
    • 3.3.2. Insulin pump market
    • 3.3.3. Insulin pump players and market share
    • 3.3.4. Key trends for the industry
    • 3.3.5. Accu-Chek Solo by Roche
    • 3.3.6. What do patch pumps offer over infusion pumps?
    • 3.3.7. Insulin pump technology roadmap
  • 3.4. Linking insulin pumps and CGM: Towards closed loop and the artificial pancreas
    • 3.4.1. Today: Hybrid closed loop systems
    • 3.4.2. The objective: Closing the feedback loop
    • 3.4.3. Medtronic leads development of hybrid closed-loop
    • 3.4.4. Insulet: Omnipod 5
    • 3.4.5. Tidepool: Tidepool Loop
    • 3.4.6. Outlook for insulin pumps
    • 3.4.7. Conclusions for insulin delivery

4. CARDIAC RHYTHM MONITORING SKIN PATCHES

  • 4.1.1. Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • 4.1.2. Atrial fibrillation and early detection
  • 4.1.3. Biopotential indicator and the electrocardiogram
  • 4.1.4. Diagnosis process for atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias
  • 4.1.5. ECG monitor pain points that skin patches solve
  • 4.1.6. Cardiac monitoring skin patches: device types
  • 4.1.7. Cardiac monitoring device types - skin patches
  • 4.1.8. Cardiac rhythm monitoring skin patches: companies and product types
  • 4.1.9. Cardiac monitoring players and devices (1)
  • 4.1.10. Cardiac monitoring players and devices (2)
  • 4.1.11. How many ECG channels does a skin patch need?
  • 4.1.12. ECGs use wet electrodes and strong adhesives
  • 4.1.13. Dry electrodes may improve longer wear experience
  • 4.1.14. ECG skin patches are packaged with support AI
  • 4.1.15. Reimbursement codes for wearable cardiac monitors
  • 4.1.16. Wearable vs implantable monitoring
  • 4.1.17. Phillips (Biotelemetry)
  • 4.1.18. iRhythm
  • 4.1.19. Boston Scientific (Preventice Solutions)
  • 4.1.20. Conclusions for cardiac monitoring skin patches
  • 4.1.21. Cardiac rhythm monitoring skin patches: company profiles
  • 4.2. Fetal heart rate monitoring
    • 4.2.1. Fetal monitoring
    • 4.2.2. GE Healthcare (Monica Healthcare)
    • 4.2.3. Conclusions for fetal heart rate monitoring

5. GENERAL PATIENT MONITORING SKIN PATCHES

  • 5.1. General vital sign monitoring
  • 5.2. Drivers and requirements for skin patches
  • 5.3. Application potential for general purpose devices
  • 5.4. Deployment challenges for general monitoring devices
  • 5.5. Evolving market dynamics over time
  • 5.6. Decentralized clinical trials
  • 5.7. General patient monitoring skin patch players
  • 5.8. Inpatient monitoring
  • 5.9. Going wireless
  • 5.10. Shifting to outpatient monitoring
  • 5.11. Post-Discharge Monitoring: Reducing Readmissions
  • 5.12. Neutropenia, post-chemotherapy vital monitoring
  • 5.13. Drawback of remote patient monitoring
  • 5.14. BioIntelliSense
  • 5.15. Vivalink
  • 5.16. VitalConnect
  • 5.17. Conclusions for general patient monitoring skin patches

6. TEMPERATURE SENSING SKIN PATCHES

  • 6.1. Body temperature
  • 6.2. Skin patches for temperature sensing
  • 6.3. Temperature sensor options
  • 6.4. Fever and COVID-19
  • 6.5. Fertility monitoring
  • 6.6. Temperature monitor skin patch companies
  • 6.7. Blue Spark
  • 6.8. Conclusions for temperature monitoring skin patches

7. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION WITH SKIN PATCHES

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Differentiation of electrical stimulation
  • 7.3. NMES, EMS, and FES
  • 7.4. Application of NMES/EMS
  • 7.5. Electrical stimulation parameters
  • 7.6. First Kind Medical: gecko
  • 7.7. TENS
  • 7.8. Percutaneous Electrical Stimulation
  • 7.9. Communication with Bioelectronic Implants
  • 7.10. Electrical stimulation skin patches: company profiles
  • 7.11. Conclusions for electrical stimulation skin patches

8. IONTOPHORESIS SKIN PATCHES

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Iontophoresis for Drug Delivery
  • 8.3. Commercial Activity: Iontophoresis for Drug Delivery
  • 8.4. Iontophoresis for Drug Delivery: Companies
  • 8.5. Reverse Iontophoresis
  • 8.6. Nemaura Medical
  • 8.7. Conclusions for iontophoresis and reverse iontophoresis skin patches

9. SWEAT SENSING SKIN PATCHES

  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Galvanic Skin Response
  • 9.3. Chemical Sensing in Sweat
  • 9.4. Analytes in Sweat
  • 9.5. Sweat Sensing: Companies
  • 9.6. Conclusion for sweat sensing

10. OTHER ELECTRONIC SKIN PATCH APPLICATIONS

  • 10.1. Wound Monitoring
  • 10.2. Wound Monitoring: Examples
  • 10.3. Wound Treatment: Potential Directions
  • 10.4. Motion
  • 10.5. Motion: Skin Patches vs Other Form Factors
  • 10.6. Motion: Inertial Measurement Units and Concussion Monitoring
  • 10.7. Motion: Displacement Sensors
  • 10.8. Communication with Implants
  • 10.9. Communication with Implants: Proteus Digital Health
  • 10.10. Ultrasound: Bladder Volume Sensing
  • 10.11. Respiration Sound

11. MANUFACTURING ELECTRONIC SKIN PATCHES

  • 11.1.1. Electronic skin patch manufacturing value chain
  • 11.2. Manufacturing methods
    • 11.2.1. Electronic skin patch manufacturing process
    • 11.2.2. Higher volumes will encourage transition to R2R manufacturing
    • 11.2.3. Offering S2S and R2R production enables different order sizes
    • 11.2.4. Increased demand for wearable/medical manufacturing leads to expansion plans
    • 11.2.5. Membrane switch manufacturers with screen printing capabilities transition to electronic skin patches
    • 11.2.6. Interest in wearable sensing continues to grow but technical challenges remain
    • 11.2.7. Development from conventional boxed to flexible hybrid electronics will be challenging
    • 11.2.8. GE Research: Manufacturing of disposable wearable vital signs monitoring devices
    • 11.2.9. NextFlex: Utilizing electronics in silicone to make more comfortable skin patches
    • 11.2.10. Key points: Electronic skin patch manufacturing
  • 11.3. Materials
    • 11.3.1. 'Full-stack' material portfolios reduce adoption barriers
    • 11.3.2. Material requirements for an electronic skin patch
    • 11.3.3. Progress in using liquid metal alloys as stretchable inks for wearable electronics
    • 11.3.4. New printed electrode materials from Henkel
    • 11.3.5. Key points: Materials for electronic skin patches

12. MARKET FORECASTS

  • 12.1.1. Electronic skin patches global market annual revenue historic data 2010-2022
  • 12.1.2. Electronic skin patches global market annual revenue historic data and forecast 2010-2033
  • 12.1.3. Electronic skin patches global market annual revenue historic data and forecast 2010-2033 - excluding diabetes
  • 12.2. Diabetes management skin patch market forecasts
    • 12.2.1. Forecast: introduction
    • 12.2.2. Forecast method: Company revenue in diabetes management
    • 12.2.3. Skin patches for diabetes management: market forecast 2022-2033
    • 12.2.4. CGM: annual revenue forecast 2022-2033
    • 12.2.5. CGM: methodology and assumptions
    • 12.2.6. CGM: forecasted uptake by type 2 and prediabetes
    • 12.2.7. CGM: Milestones
    • 12.2.8. CGMs by population adoption proportion
    • 12.2.9. Patch pumps revenue forecast 2023-2033
  • 12.3. Cardiac rhythm monitoring skin patch market forecasts
    • 12.3.1. Cardiac rhythm management forecasting methodology
    • 12.3.2. Cardiac rhythm management global historic market data 2010-2021
    • 12.3.3. Cardiac rhythm management global market forecast 2021-2033
    • 12.3.4. Cardiac rhythm management global market forecast 2010-2033
    • 12.3.5. Cardiac rhythm management global market forecast 2010-2033
  • 12.4. General patient monitoring skin patch market forecasts
    • 12.4.1. Methodology for forecasting general patient monitoring
    • 12.4.2. General patient monitoring skin patches global market forecast 2023-2033
    • 12.4.3. General patient monitoring skin patches global market historic data and forecast 2010-2033
  • 12.5. Temperature sensing skin patch market forecasts
    • 12.5.1. Temperature sensing skin patches global market forecast 2023-2033
  • 12.6. Electrical stimulation skin patch market forecasts
    • 12.6.1. Electrical stimulation skin patches: market data (2010-2020)
    • 12.6.2. Electrical stimulation skin patches: market forecast (2021-2033)
    • 12.6.3. Electrical stimulation skin patches: market data and forecast (2010-2033)
  • 12.7. Iontophoresis skin patch market forecasts
    • 12.7.1. Iontophoresis skin patches: market forecast (2021-2033)
    • 12.7.2. Iontophoresis skin patches: market data and forecast (2010-2033)

13. COMPANY PROFILES

  • 13.1. Abbott Diabetes care
  • 13.2. Agamatrix
  • 13.3. Biobeat
  • 13.4. BiointelliSense
  • 13.5. Bioness
  • 13.6. Bittium
  • 13.7. Blue Spark
  • 13.8. Boston Scientific (Preventice solutions)
  • 13.9. Byteflies
  • 13.10. Cardiomo
  • 13.11. Cortrium
  • 13.12. Dexcom
  • 13.13. Diabeloop
  • 13.14. Epicore
  • 13.15. FirstKind
  • 13.16. GlucoRx
  • 13.17. Grapheal
  • 13.18. HiDow
  • 13.19. Hivox Biotek
  • 13.20. Infinovo
  • 13.21. iRhythm
  • 13.22. Isansys
  • 13.23. Leaf Healthcare
  • 13.24. LifeScience Technology
  • 13.25. LifeSignals
  • 13.26. Medtronic
  • 13.27. Medtrum
  • 13.28. Mezoo
  • 13.29. Philips
  • 13.30. Phillips Biotelemetry
  • 13.31. Preventice Solutions
  • 13.32. QT Medical
  • 13.33. Raiing
  • 13.34. Roche
  • 13.35. Rooti
  • 13.36. Scottcare
  • 13.37. Seers technology
  • 13.38. Sigknow
  • 13.39. Singular Wings Medical
  • 13.40. SPR Therapeutics
  • 13.41. SteadySense
  • 13.42. The surgical company
  • 13.43. Tidepool
  • 13.44. Triple W
  • 13.45. VitalConnect
  • 13.46. Vivalink
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