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담수화 : 오프그리드 탄소 제로(2018-2028년)

Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028

리서치사 IDTechEx Ltd.
발행일 2018년 07월 상품 코드 600122
페이지 정보 영문 198 Slides
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담수화 : 오프그리드 탄소 제로(2018-2028년) Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028
발행일 : 2018년 07월 페이지 정보 : 영문 198 Slides

담수화용 오프그리드 전기 시스템에 대해 조사했으며, 오프그리드 탄소 제로의 세계적 문제, 성공 기술, 동향, 향후의 기술 로드맵, 설치용량·매출 예측, 새로운 기술 조합과 용도, 베스트 프랙티스, 담수화 기술과 오프그리드 동기 개요, 담수화를 위한 새로운 오프그리드 전기 기술 등에 대해 정리하여 전해드립니다.

제1장 주요 요약과 결론

제2장 서론

제3장 담수화 기술

  • 담수화 기술 : 개요
  • 담수화 옵션
  • 담수화 기술 비교
    • 기계 및 전기

제4장 담수화용 오프그리드 전기 시스템

  • 정의와 전체적인 동향
  • 오프그리드 전기 구조와 역사
  • 많은 변화
  • 오프그리드 탄소 제로 전력 공급의 특징
  • 탄소 제로 오프그리드 시스템 아키텍처
  • 기술을 탄소 제로에 결합
  • 가격 경쟁은 생각했던 것보다 용이
  • 기능의 계층(hierarchy)
  • 오프그리드 전력의 향후 동향
  • 탄소 제로 오프그리드 전기 기술 로드맵

제5장 오프그리드 전기 시스템 요소

  • 기본
  • 배터리는 트러블을 의미 : 선호되는 대체물
  • 에너지수확기술

제6장 빛과 적외선에서 얻는 전력

  • 기본
  • 실리콘 이외의 주요 PV 옵션

제7장 바람에서 얻는 전력

  • 담수화용 풍력발전
  • 지상 풍력발전은 소형화되어 있지 않아 : 물리적 특성과 약한 바람
  • 양수에 의한 거대한 풍력터빈
  • 풍력터빈 선택
  • 수직축 풍력터빈(VAWT)의 역할
  • 공중 풍력에너지

제8장 담수화용 풍력발전 " 블루에너지"

  • 개요
  • 담수화 전력용 파력의 새로운 형태
  • 직압 담수화를 위한 수압
  • 파력에 의한 전력
  • 담수화용 조력 : Nova Innovation(영국)
LSH 18.01.31

이 페이지에 게재되어 있는 내용은 최신판과 약간 차이가 있을 수 있으므로 영문목차를 함께 참조하여 주시기 바랍니다. 기타 자세한 사항은 문의 바랍니다.

It is time for a report on the heart of future desalination. This is the new IDTechEx report, "Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028". Coming from very little in 2018, off grid zero emission desalination will be a rapidly growing $35 billion market in 2028. The report looks closely at its roadmap of exciting new desalination and electricity technologies that will boost performance and reduce cost, in particular reducing what is usually the largest cost element - electricity. That embraces photovoltaics that is three times as efficient, Aerial Wind Energy AWE such as tethered kites more affordable and versatile than ground wind turbines and many new forms of water power that viably downsize and are sufficiently rugged and free of marine growth. There is a lot of benchmarking best practice in other industries ahead in these aspects for all sizes.

This 190+ page report covering 79 organisations is replete with new infograms and forecasts. They clarify such things as the increasing interaction and integration in this emerging industry. Desalination plants will refill the Dead Sea while providing drinking water and many will provide spare electricity for communities. Some will be part of village, island and ship microgrids. How many islands? Which countries? What is best practice? It is here including future desalination options and why certain ones are dying out.

The report starts with a 48 page Executive Summary and Conclusions that is sufficient in itself for those in a hurry. It surveys the problem globally, the winning technologies, the trend to off grid zero emission and the future roadmap of technology. Forecasts of installed capacity and sales are given to 2028 of this, the heart of next generation desalination.

New combinations and applications of technologies are proposed, best practice illustrated and everything is put into the context of the rapid trend to off grid zero emission electricity production generally. The Introduction then gives an overview of desalination technologies and off grid motivation. A chapter on desalination technology appraises what will be a match for new off grid electricity technology, with detailed comparisons and best practice examples. Chapter 4 specifically examines emerging off grid electricity technology for desalination, Chapter 5 explains off grid ZE electricity system elements and how to avoid the troublesome ones and appraise what comes next. Chapters 6, 7 and 8 show how desalination will be tackled by new photovoltaics, wind power and water power with best practice examples.

The increasingly popular mobile desalinators will sometimes double as transport, provide electricity for farm robots not just irrigation and some will replace increasingly unaffordable diesel gensets expensively modified to meet new emissions laws and involving yesterday's crippling fuel supply systems. There are many strategies for avoiding expensive, dangerous, short lived batteries in desalination and examples are given.

For "Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028", multi-lingual PhD level analysts from IDTechEx have carried out interviews worldwide, mined restricted databases and thought creatively on your behalf, presenting many new ideas. The research was carried out in 2017/8 and it is constantly updated. There are drill down reports for those wanting even more. They cover AWE, off grid overview, electricity from urban infrastructure and much more.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Purpose of this report
  • 1.2. Global water resources
  • 1.3. Recycling, preservation and more frugal use of water must have priority
    • 1.3.1. Better use of traditional water supplies is essential
    • 1.3.2. Projecting water stress
  • 1.4. Desalination past, present and future
    • 1.4.1. A history of last resort, big is beautiful
    • 1.4.2. A bright future for desalination
    • 1.4.3. Onerous requirements for large desalination plants may force rethink
    • 1.4.4. Small becomes beautiful too
    • 1.4.5. Best practice small ZE off grid desalination: MIT USA in Puerto Rico
  • 1.5. Driving the trend to off grid electricity
  • 1.6. New technologies for ZE distributed energy for desalination off grid
    • 1.6.1. Photovoltaics, wind turbines
    • 1.6.2. Options for tapping excellent 200+m wind: stronger at night when PV is off
    • 1.6.3. Big gains from multi-mode harvesting
  • 1.7. Desalination technology
    • 1.7.1. Overview
    • 1.7.2. Technology options
    • 1.7.3. Installations: RO winning, having overtaken thermal methods
    • 1.7.4. Solar RO desalination winning in number of ZE plants
    • 1.7.5. RO roadmap of some future technology improvements
    • 1.7.6. Leading technology parameters compared
  • 1.8. Forecasts
    • 1.8.1. Capacity installed and market drivers
    • 1.8.2. Adoption and design choice is complex
    • 1.8.3. Roadmap for ZE off grid desalination 2018-2028
    • 1.8.4. Number of desalination plants globally 2018-2028 operating, added
    • 1.8.5. Desalination plants sold globally 2018-2028 total, off grid ZE
    • 1.8.6. Commentary
    • 1.8.7. Installed ZE electricity capacity worldwide 2018, 2028, 2040, 2050 kTWh/yr and desalination part
  • 1.9. 2018: orders flood in

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Definition and overview
    • 2.1.1. What is desalination?
    • 2.1.2. Current status
    • 2.1.3. Uses - nominally high costs become low relative costs
    • 2.1.4. Absolute costs coming down
    • 2.1.5. Cannot be assessed in isolation
  • 2.2. Global water resources
    • 2.2.1. Brackish Water for Food and Drink
  • 2.3. Questioning ever larger on grid desalination
    • 2.3.1. Questioning ever larger on grid electricity sources
  • 2.4. Zero emission, owning the electricity source and rural life become more desirable
    • 2.4.1. Drivers of off grid electricity impact desalination
  • 2.5. Location
  • 2.6. Much progress with desalination and excellent prospects
  • 2.7. More reasons to worry about national grids now
  • 2.8. Main new demand for off grid electricity
  • 2.9. Continuity of electricity supply is at least as important as cost: energy storage vs energy harvesting for continuity
    • 2.9.1. How to get better continuity
  • 2.10. Multipurpose, mobile, no large battery: desalination can learn from others
  • 2.11. New ZE alternatives to desalination
    • 2.11.1. Zirconium fumarate
    • 2.11.2. Zero Mass Water solar panels with nanomaterials
  • 2.12. Geothermal option

3. DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY

  • 3.1. Desalination technology overview
  • 3.2. Desalination options
  • 3.3. Desalination technologies compared
    • 3.3.1. Desalination technologies compared: Thermal
    • 3.3.2. Desalination technologies compared: Mechanical and electrical

4. OFF GRID ELECTRICITY SYSTEMS FOR DESALINATION

  • 4.1. Definition and overall trends
  • 4.2. Off grid electricity structure and history
  • 4.3. Much is changing
  • 4.4. Characteristics of off-grid zero emission electricity supply
  • 4.5. Zero emission off grid system architecture
  • 4.6. Bridging technologies to zero emission
  • 4.7. Competing on price is easier than it seems
  • 4.8. Hierarchy of function
    • 4.8.1. Structural types of ZE off grid electricity system
    • 4.8.2. OffGridBox microgrid USA, Rwanda
    • 4.8.3. Minigrids with multi-mode harvesting
  • 4.9. Future trends of off grid electricity
    • 4.9.1. Access to electricity by people in 2018: conflicting forces
    • 4.9.2. Electricity supply in 2018 and 2050: here comes off grid
    • 4.9.3. Solar installation off grid not simply related to wealth/ size of country
  • 4.10. ZE off grid electricity technology roadmaps
    • 4.10.1. Off grid technology and adoption roadmap: harvesting
    • 4.10.2. Off grid technology and adoption roadmap 2038: harvesting
    • 4.10.3. Off grid technology and adoption roadmap: storage

5. OFF GRID ELECTRICITY SYSTEM ELEMENTS

  • 5.1. Basics
  • 5.2. Batteries mean trouble: alternatives favoured
  • 5.3. Energy harvesting
    • 5.3.1. Definition and overview
    • 5.3.2. Market drivers for off grid energy harvesting
    • 5.3.3. Features of energy harvesting
    • 5.3.4. EH transducer construction, materials
    • 5.3.5. Geothermal not important for desalination

6. ELECTRICITY FROM LIGHT AND INFRARED

  • 6.1. Basics
  • 6.2. Main PV options beyond silicon

7. ELECTRICITY FROM WIND

  • 7.1. Wind power for desalination
  • 7.2. Ground turbine wind power does not downsize well: physics and poorer wind
  • 7.3. Gigantic wind turbine with water pumping:
  • 7.4. Wind turbine choices
  • 7.5. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines VAWT have a place
  • 7.6. Airborne Wind Energy

8. WATER POWER "BLUE ENERGY" FOR DESALINATION

  • 8.1. Overview
  • 8.2. New forms of wave power for desalination electricity
  • 8.3. Water pressure for direct pressure desalination
    • 8.3.1. SAROS USA on water
    • 8.3.2. CETO Australia under the waves
  • 8.4. Electricity from wave power
    • 8.4.1. Wave Swell Energy Australia minimising parts
    • 8.4.2. Witt UK: 6D small to large off grid power
    • 8.4.3. Marine Power Systems UK WaveSub
    • 8.4.4. REAC Energy Germany StreamCube
    • 8.4.5. Okinawa IST Japan wave converters
    • 8.4.6. Oscilla Power USA magnetostriction for 100kW+ wave power
  • 8.5. Tidal power for desalination: Nova Innovation UK
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