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세계의 고체 및 폴리머 배터리 시장(2020-2030년) : 기술, 특허, 예측, 기업

Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2020-2030: Technology, Patents, Forecasts, Players

리서치사 IDTechEx Ltd.
발행일 2020년 07월 상품 코드 949751
페이지 정보 영문 336 Slides
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세계의 고체 및 폴리머 배터리 시장(2020-2030년) : 기술, 특허, 예측, 기업 Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2020-2030: Technology, Patents, Forecasts, Players
발행일 : 2020년 07월 페이지 정보 : 영문 336 Slides

고체 배터리 시장은 2030년에는 60억 달러 이상의 규모로 성장할 것으로 예측됩니다.

고체 및 폴리머 배터리 기술 및 시장을 조사했으며, 리튬이온 배터리 및 액체 전해질의 과제와 제약, 무기 고체 전해질 재료·유기 폴리머 전해질의 각종 종류 분석, 전고체 배터리 개발을 향한 기업·기관의 각종 대처, 시장 규모·배터리 용량의 10개년 예측, 주요 기업 개요 등을 정리했습니다.

제1장 주요 요약과 결론

제2장 배경

  • 서론
  • 배터리 개발 : 지연 이유
  • 리튬이온 배터리의 안전성 문제
  • 리튬이온 배터리
  • 배터리 요건
  • 결론

제3장 전고체 배터리에 대한 기대

  • 고체 배터리의 중요성
  • 고체 배터리에 대한 관심
    • 고체 배터리 연구
    • 중국의 관심
    • CATL
    • Qing Tao Energy Development
    • Ganfeng Lithium
    • Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
    • WeLion New Energy Technology
    • JiaWei Renewable Energy
    • 기타 중국 기업 15개사의 대처
    • Enovate Motors
    • 중국 자동차 기업의 대처
    • 일본의 관심
    • 독일 NPE : 기술 로드맵
    • 배터리 기술 로드맵
    • SSB 프로젝트 : Ionics
    • SSB 프로젝트 : SBIR 2016
    • 자동차 제조업체의 대처 : BMW
    • 자동차 제조업체의 대처 : Volkswagen
    • 자동차 제조업체의 대처 : Hyundai
    • 자동차 제조업체의 대처 : Toyota
    • 자동차 제조업체의 대처 : Fisker Inc.
    • 자동차 제조업체의 대처 : Bollore
    • 배터리 벤더의 대처 : Panasonic
    • 배터리 벤더의 대처 : Samsung SDI
    • 학술기관 : University of Munster
    • 학술기관 : Giessen University
    • 학술기관 : Fraunhofer Batterien

제4장 고체 배터리

  • 서론
  • 고체 고분자 전해질
  • 고체 무기 전해질
  • 고체 전해질 : 특허 분석
  • 비복합 무기·고분자 고체 전해질 : 특허 분석
  • 복합 전해질
  • 리튬이온을 넘어선 고체 전해질

제5장 고체 배터리 제조

  • 보틀넥
  • 기존 프로세스 : 라미네이트
  • 고체 배터리 컴포넌트 제조 처리 루트 : 개요
  • 고체 전해질 제조 프로세스 체인
  • 음극(Anode) 제조 프로세스 체인
  • 양극(Cathode) 제조 프로세스 체인
  • 셀 어셈블리 프로세스 체인
  • 고체 배터리 제조 공정
  • 고체 배터리 제조 설비
  • 전고체 배터리(SMD 타입)의 대표적인 제조 방법
  • 박막 전해질 : 실행 가능성
  • 박막 배터리 주요 제조 기술 : 개요
  • 박막 배터리 PVD 프로세스
  • Ilika
  • 제조로의 길
  • Toyota : 어프로치
  • Hitachi Zosen : 어프로치
  • Sakti3 : PVD 어프로치
  • Planar Energy : 어프로치

제6장 기업 개요

  • 24M
  • Ampcera
  • Blue Solutions
  • BrightVolt
  • Cymbet
  • EMPA
  • Flashcharge
  • FDK Corporation
  • Hitachi
  • Ilika
  • Ionic Materials
  • Johnson Battery Technologies
  • Kalptree Energy
  • Ohara
  • Planar Energy Devices
  • Polyplus Battery Company
  • Prieto Battery Inc.
  • ProLogium
  • QuantumScape
  • Sakti3
  • SolidEnergy
  • Solid Power
  • Solvay
  • STMicroelectronics
  • Toshiba
  • Toyota Central Research & Development Laboratories, Inc.

제7장 부록

KSM 20.08.04

Title:
Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2020-2030:
Technology, Patents, Forecasts, Players

Revolutionary approach for the battery business.

The market size of solid-state batteries will reach over $ 6 billion by 2030.

A typical commercial battery cell usually consists of cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. One of the most successful commercial batteries is the lithium-ion technology, which has been commercialized since 1991. However, their worldwide success and diffusion in consumer electronics and, more recently, electric vehicles (EV) cannot hide their limitations in terms of safety, performance, form factor, and cost due to the underlying technology.

Most current lithium-ion technologies employ liquid electrolyte, with lithium salts such as LiPF6, LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent. However, the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), which is caused as a result of the de-composition of the electrolyte at the negative electrode, limits the effective conductance. Furthermore, liquid electrolyte needs expensive membranes to separate the cathode and anode, as well as an impermeable casing to avoid leakage. Therefore, the size and design freedom for these batteries are constrained. Furthermore, liquid electrolytes have safety and health issues as they use flammable and corrosive liquids. Samsung's Firegate has particularly highlighted the risks that even large companies incur when flammable liquid electrolytes are used.

Solid-state electrolytes have the potential to address all of those aspects, particularly in the electric vehicle, wearable, and drone markets. Their first application was in the 70s as primary batteries for pacemakers, where a sheet of Li metal is placed in contact with solid iodine. The two materials behave like a short-circuited cell and their reaction leads to the formation of a lithium iodide (LiI) layer at their interface. After the LiI layer has formed, a very small, constant current can still flow from the lithium anode to the iodine cathode for several years. Fast forward to 2011, and researchers from Toyota and the Tokyo Institute of Technology have claimed the discovery of a sulphide-base material that has the same ionic conductivity of a liquid electrolyte, something unthinkable up to a decade ago. Five years later, they were able to double that value, thus making solid-state electrolytes appealing also for high power applications and fast charging. This and other innovations have fuelled research and investments into new categories of materials that can triple current Li-ion energy densities.

In solid-state batteries, both the electrodes and the electrolytes are solid state. Solid-state electrolyte normally behaves as the separator as well, allowing downscaling due to the elimination of certain components (e.g. separator and casing). Therefore, they can potentially be made thinner, flexible, and contain more energy per unit weight than conventional Li-ion. In addition, the removal of liquid electrolytes can be an avenue for safer, long-lasting batteries as they are more resistant to changes in temperature and physical damages incurred during usage. Solid state batteries can handle more charge/discharge cycles before degradation, promising a longer lifetime.

With a battery market currently dominated by Asian companies, European and US firms are striving to win this arms race that might, in their view, shift added value away from Japan, China, and South Korea. Different material selection and change of manufacturing procedures show an indication of reshuffle of the battery supply chain. From both technology and business point of view, development of solid-state battery has formed part of the next generation battery strategy. It has become a global game with regional interests and governmental supports.

This report covers the solid-state electrolyte industry by giving a 10-year forecast till 2030 in terms of capacity production and market size, predicted to reach over $7B. A special focus is made on winning chemistries, with a full analysis of the 8 inorganic solid electrolytes and of organic polymer electrolytes. This is complemented with a unique IP landscape analysis that identifies what chemistry the main companies are working on, and how R&D in that space has evolved during the last 5 years.

Additionally, the report covers the manufacturing challenges related to solid electrolytes and how large companies (Toyota, Toshiba, etc.) try to address those limitations, as well as research progress and activities of important players. A study of lithium metal as a strategic resource is also presented, highlighting the strategic distribution of this material around the world and the role it will play in solid-state batteries. Some chemistries will be quite lithium-hungry and put a strain on mining companies worldwide.

Finally, over 20 different companies are compared and ranked in terms of their technology and manufacturing readiness, with a watch list and a score comparison.

Players discussed in this report:

24M, Applied Materials, BatScap (Bolloré Group) / Bathium, Beijing Easpring Material Technology, BMW, BrighVolt, BYD, CATL, Cenat, CEA Tech, China Aviation Lithium Battery, Coslight, Cymbet, EMPA, Enovate Motors, FDK, Fisker Inc., Flashcharge Batteries, Fraunhofer Batterien, Front Edge Technology, Ganfeng Lithium, Giessen University, Guangzhou Great Power, Guoxuan High-Tech Power Energy, Hitachi Zosen, Hyundai, Ilika, IMEC, Infinite Power Solutions, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ionic Materials, ITEN, Jiawei Long powers Solid-State Storage Technology RuGao City Co. Ltd, JiaWei Renewable Energy, Johnson Battery Technologies, Kalptree Energy, Magnis Energy Technologies, Mitsui Metal, Murata, National Battery, National Interstellar Solid State Lithium Electricity Technology, NGK/NTK, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS, Oak Ridge Energy Technologies, Ohara, Panasonic, Planar Energy, Polyplus, Prieto Battery, ProLogium, Qing Tao Energy Development Co., QuantumScape, Sakti 3, Samsung SDI, Schott AG, SEEO, Solidenergy, Solid Power, Solvay, Sony, STMicroelectronics, Taiyo Yuden, TDK, Tianqi Lithium, Toshiba, Toyota, ULVAC, University of Münster, Volkswagen, Wanxian A123 Systems, WeLion New Energy Technology, Zhongtian Technology

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Players discussed in this report
  • 1.2. Status and future of solid-state battery business
  • 1.3. Regional efforts: Germany, France, UK, Australia, USA, Japan, Korea and China
  • 1.4. Location overview of major solid-state battery companies
  • 1.5. Solid-state battery partner relationships
  • 1.6. Solid-state electrolyte technology approach
  • 1.7. Summary of solid-state electrolyte technology
  • 1.8. Comparison of solid-state electrolyte systems
  • 1.9. Technology evaluation
  • 1.10. Technology evaluation: polymer vs. LLZO vs. LATP vs. LGPS
  • 1.11. Technology and manufacturing readiness
  • 1.12. Score comparison
  • 1.13. Solid state battery collaborations / acquisitions by OEMs
  • 1.14. Battery ambitions
  • 1.15. Solid-state battery value chain
  • 1.16. Potential applications for solid-state batteries
  • 1.17. Market readiness
  • 1.18. Solid-state batteries for electric vehicles
  • 1.19. Solid-state batteries for consumer electronics
  • 1.20. Performance comparison: Electric Vehicles
  • 1.21. Performance comparison: CEs & wearables
  • 1.22. Market forecast methodology
  • 1.23. Assumptions and analysis of market forecast of SSB
  • 1.24. Price forecast of solid-state battery for various applications
  • 1.25. Solid-state battery addressable market size
  • 1.26. Solid-state battery forecast 2020-2030 by application
  • 1.27. Market size segmentation in 2025 and 2030
  • 1.28. Solid-state battery forecast 2020-2030 by technology
  • 1.29. Solid-state battery forecast 2020-2030 for car plug in

2. BACKGROUND

  • 2.1.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Why Is Battery Development so Slow?
    • 2.2.1. What is a battery?
    • 2.2.2. A big obstacle - energy density
    • 2.2.3. Battery technology is based on redox reactions
    • 2.2.4. Electrochemical reaction is essentially based on electron transfer
    • 2.2.5. Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
    • 2.2.6. The importance of an electrolyte in a battery
    • 2.2.7. Cathode & anode need to have structural order
    • 2.2.8. Failure story about metallic lithium anode
  • 2.3. Safety Issues with Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • 2.3.1. Safety of liquid-electrolyte lithium-ion batteries
    • 2.3.2. Modern horror films are finding their scares in dead phone batteries
    • 2.3.3. Samsung's Firegate
    • 2.3.4. Safety aspects of Li-ion batteries
    • 2.3.5. LIB cell temperature and likely outcome
  • 2.4. Li-ion Batteries
    • 2.4.1. Food is electricity for humans
    • 2.4.2. What is a Li-ion battery (LIB)?
    • 2.4.3. Anode alternatives: Lithium titanium and lithium metal
    • 2.4.4. Anode alternatives: Other carbon materials
    • 2.4.5. Anode alternatives: Silicon, tin and alloying materials
    • 2.4.6. Cathode alternatives: LNMO, NMC, NCA and Vanadium pentoxide
    • 2.4.7. Cathode alternatives: LFP
    • 2.4.8. Cathode alternatives: Sulphur
    • 2.4.9. Cathode alternatives: Oxygen
    • 2.4.10. High energy cathodes require fluorinated electrolytes
    • 2.4.11. Why is lithium so important?
    • 2.4.12. Where is lithium?
    • 2.4.13. How to produce lithium
    • 2.4.14. Where is lithium used
    • 2.4.15. Question: how much lithium do we need?
    • 2.4.16. How can LIBs be improved?
  • 2.5. Battery Requirement
    • 2.5.1. Push and pull factors in Li-ion research
    • 2.5.2. The battery trilemma
    • 2.5.3. Performance limit
    • 2.5.4. Form factor
    • 2.5.5. Cost
  • 2.6. Conclusions
    • 2.6.1. Conclusions

3. LONGING FOR ALL SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

  • 3.1. Why Solid-State Batteries?
    • 3.1.1. A solid future?
    • 3.1.2. Lithium-ion batteries vs. solid-state batteries
    • 3.1.3. What is a solid-state battery (SSB)?
    • 3.1.4. How can solid-state batteries increase performance?
    • 3.1.5. Close stacking
    • 3.1.6. Energy density improvement
    • 3.1.7. Value propositions and limitations of solid-state battery
    • 3.1.8. Flexibility and customisation provided by solid-state batteries
  • 3.2. Interests on Solid-State Batteries
    • 3.2.1. Research efforts on solid-state batteries
    • 3.2.2. A new cycle of interests
    • 3.2.3. Interests in China
    • 3.2.4. CATL
    • 3.2.5. Qing Tao Energy Development
    • 3.2.6. History of Qing Tao Energy Development
    • 3.2.7. Ganfeng Lithium
    • 3.2.8. Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
    • 3.2.9. WeLion New Energy Technology
    • 3.2.10. JiaWei Renewable Energy
    • 3.2.11. 15 Other Chinese player activities on solid state batteries
    • 3.2.12. Enovate Motors
    • 3.2.13. Chinese car player activities on solid-state batteries
    • 3.2.14. Regional interests: Japan
    • 3.2.15. Technology roadmap according to Germany's NPE
    • 3.2.16. Roadmap for battery cell technology
    • 3.2.17. SSB project - Ionics
    • 3.2.18. SSB project - SBIR 2016
    • 3.2.19. Automakers' efforts - BMW
    • 3.2.20. Automakers' efforts - Volkswagen
    • 3.2.21. Automakers' efforts - Hyundai
    • 3.2.22. Automakers' efforts - Toyota
    • 3.2.23. Automakers' efforts - Fisker Inc.
    • 3.2.24. Automakers' efforts - Bolloré
    • 3.2.25. Battery vendors' efforts - Panasonic
    • 3.2.26. Battery vendors' efforts - Samsung SDI
    • 3.2.27. Academic views - University of Münster
    • 3.2.28. Academic views - Giessen University
    • 3.2.29. Academic views - Fraunhofer Batterien

4. SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

  • 4.1. Introduction to Solid-State Batteries
    • 4.1.1. History of solid-state batteries
    • 4.1.2. Solid-state battery configurations
    • 4.1.3. Solid-state electrolytes
    • 4.1.4. Differences between liquid and solid electrolytes
    • 4.1.5. How to design a good solid-state electrolyte
    • 4.1.6. Classifications of solid-state electrolyte
    • 4.1.7. Thin film vs. bulk solid-state batteries
    • 4.1.8. Scaling of thin ceramic sheets
    • 4.1.9. How safe are solid-state batteries?
  • 4.2. Solid Polymer Electrolytes
    • 4.2.1. Applications of polymer-based batteries
    • 4.2.2. LiPo batteries, polymer-based batteries, polymeric batteries
    • 4.2.3. Types of polymer electrolytes
    • 4.2.4. Electrolytic polymer options
    • 4.2.5. Advantages and issues of polymer electrolytes
    • 4.2.6. PEO for solid polymer electrolyte
    • 4.2.7. Polymer-based battery: Solidenergy
    • 4.2.8. Coslight
    • 4.2.9. BrightVolt batteries
    • 4.2.10. BrightVolt product matrix
    • 4.2.11. BrightVolt electrolyte
    • 4.2.12. Hydro-Québec
    • 4.2.13. Solvay
    • 4.2.14. IMEC
    • 4.2.15. Polyplus
    • 4.2.16. SEEO
    • 4.2.17. Innovative electrode for semi-solid electrolyte batteries
    • 4.2.18. Redefining manufacturing process by 24M
    • 4.2.19. Ionic Materials
    • 4.2.20. Technology and manufacturing process of Ionic Materials
    • 4.2.21. Prieto Battery
    • 4.2.22. Companies working on polymer solid state batteries
  • 4.3. Solid Inorganic Electrolytes
    • 4.3.1. Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion
    • 4.3.2. Oxide Inorganic Electrolyte
    • 4.3.3. Oxide electrolyte
    • 4.3.4. Garnet
    • 4.3.5. QuantumScape's technology
    • 4.3.6. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
    • 4.3.7. Nagoya University
    • 4.3.8. Toshiba
    • 4.3.9. NASICON-type
    • 4.3.10. Lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic powder-01
    • 4.3.11. LICGCTM PW-01 for cathode additives
    • 4.3.12. Ohara's products for solid state batteries
    • 4.3.13. Ohara / PolyPlus
    • 4.3.14. Application of LICGC for all solid-state batteries
    • 4.3.15. Properties of multilayer all solid-state lithium ion battery using LICGC as electrolyte
    • 4.3.16. LICGC products at the show
    • 4.3.17. Manufacturing process of Ohara glass
    • 4.3.18. Taiyo Yuden
    • 4.3.19. Schott
    • 4.3.20. Perovskite
    • 4.3.21. LiPON
    • 4.3.22. LiPON: construction
    • 4.3.23. Players worked and working LiPON-based batteries
    • 4.3.24. Cathode material options for LiPON-based batteries
    • 4.3.25. Anodes for LiPON-based batteries
    • 4.3.26. Substrate options for LiPON-based batteries
    • 4.3.27. Trend of materials and processes of thin-film battery in different companies
    • 4.3.28. LiPON: capacity increase
    • 4.3.29. Technology of Infinite Power Solutions
    • 4.3.30. Cost comparison between a standard prismatic battery and IPS' battery
    • 4.3.31. Thin-film solid-state batteries made by Excellatron
    • 4.3.32. Johnson Battery Technologies
    • 4.3.33. JBT's advanced technology performance
    • 4.3.34. Ultra-thin micro-battery-NanoEnergy®
    • 4.3.35. Micro-Batteries suitable for integration
    • 4.3.36. From limited to mass production - STMicroelectronics
    • 4.3.37. Summary of the EnFilm™ rechargeable thin-film battery
    • 4.3.38. CEA Tech
    • 4.3.39. Ilika
    • 4.3.40. TDK
    • 4.3.41. CeraCharge's performance
    • 4.3.42. Main applications of CeraCharge
    • 4.3.43. ProLogium: Solid-state lithium ceramic battery
    • 4.3.44. ProLogium: "MAB" EV battery pack assembly
    • 4.3.45. FDK
    • 4.3.46. Applications of FDK's solid state battery
    • 4.3.47. Companies working on oxide solid state batteries
    • 4.3.48. Sulphide Inorganic Electrolyte
    • 4.3.49. Solid Power
    • 4.3.50. LISICON-type
    • 4.3.51. Hitachi Zosen's solid-state electrolyte
    • 4.3.52. Hitachi Zosen's batteries
    • 4.3.53. Solid-state electrolytes - Konan University
    • 4.3.54. Tokyo Institute of Technology
    • 4.3.55. Argyrodite
    • 4.3.56. Samsung's work with argyrodite
    • 4.3.57. Companies working on sulphide solid state batteries
    • 4.3.58. Others
    • 4.3.59. Li-hydrides
    • 4.3.60. Li-halides
    • 4.3.61. Summary
    • 4.3.62. Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes
    • 4.3.63. Dendrites - ceramic fillers and high shear modulus are needed
    • 4.3.64. Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes
  • 4.4. Patent Analysis around Solid-State Electrolytes
    • 4.4.1. Overview of investigation
    • 4.4.2. Total number of patents by electrolyte type and material
    • 4.4.3. The SSE patent portfolio of key assignees
  • 4.5. Patent Analysis on Non-Composite Inorganic or Polymeric Solid-State Electrolyte
    • 4.5.1. Total number of patents by SSE material
    • 4.5.2. Patent application fluctuations from 2014 to 2016
    • 4.5.3. Legal status of patents in 2018 by SSE material
    • 4.5.4. Key assignee's patent portfolio of non-composite SSEs
    • 4.5.5. PEO: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.6. LPS: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.7. LLZO: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.8. LLTO: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.9. Lithium Iodide: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.10. LGPS: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.11. LIPON: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.12. LATP: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.13. LAGP: Patent Activity
    • 4.5.14. Argyrodite: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.15. LiBH4: Patent Activity Trends
    • 4.5.16. Conclusions
  • 4.6. Composite Electrolytes
    • 4.6.1. The best of both worlds?
    • 4.6.2. Toshiba
  • 4.7. Solid-State Electrolytes Beyond Li-ion
    • 4.7.1. Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-sulphur batteries
    • 4.7.2. Lithium sulphur solid electrode development phases
    • 4.7.3. Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-air batteries
    • 4.7.4. Solid-state electrolytes in metal-air batteries
    • 4.7.5. Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries
    • 4.7.6. Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries

5. SOLID-STATE BATTERY MANUFACTURING

  • 5.1. The real bottleneck
  • 5.2. The incumbent process: lamination
  • 5.3. Summary of processing routes of solid-state battery components fabrication
  • 5.4. Process chains for solid electrolyte fabrication
  • 5.5. Process chains for anode fabrication
  • 5.6. Process chains for cathode fabrication
  • 5.7. Process chains for cell assembly
  • 5.8. Solid battery fabrication process
  • 5.9. Manufacturing equipment for solid-state batteries
  • 5.10. Typical manufacturing method of the all solid-state battery (SMD type)
  • 5.11. Are thin film electrolytes viable?
  • 5.12. Summary of main fabrication technique for thin film batteries
  • 5.13. PVD processes for thin-film batteries
  • 5.14. Ilika's PVD approach
  • 5.15. Avenues for manufacturing
  • 5.16. Toyota's approach
  • 5.17. Hitachi Zosen's approach
  • 5.18. Sakti3's PVD approach
  • 5.19. Planar Energy's approach

6. COMPANY PROFILES

  • 6.1. 24M
  • 6.2. Ampcera
  • 6.3. Blue Solutions
  • 6.4. BrightVolt
  • 6.5. Cymbet
  • 6.6. EMPA
  • 6.7. Flashcharge
  • 6.8. FDK Corporation
  • 6.9. Hitachi
  • 6.10. Ilika
  • 6.11. Ionic Materials
  • 6.12. Johnson Battery Technologies
  • 6.13. Kalptree Energy
  • 6.14. Ohara
  • 6.15. Planar Energy Devices
  • 6.16. Polyplus Battery Company
  • 6.17. Prieto Battery Inc.
  • 6.18. ProLogium
  • 6.19. QuantumScape
  • 6.20. Sakti3
  • 6.21. SolidEnergy
  • 6.22. Solid Power
  • 6.23. Solvay
  • 6.24. STMicroelectronics
  • 6.25. Toshiba
  • 6.26. Toyota Central Research & Development Laboratories, Inc.

7. APPENDIX

  • 7.1. Glossary of terms - specifications
  • 7.2. Useful charts for performance comparison
  • 7.3. Battery categories
  • 7.4. Commercial battery packaging technologies
  • 7.5. Comparison of commercial battery packaging technologies
  • 7.6. Actors along the value chain for energy storage
  • 7.7. Primary battery chemistries and common applications
  • 7.8. Numerical specifications of popular rechargeable battery chemistries
  • 7.9. Battery technology benchmark
  • 7.10. What does 1 kilowatthour (kWh) look like?
  • 7.11. Technology and manufacturing readiness
  • 7.12. List of acronyms
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