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자율주행차와 5G 테크놀러지 : 시장, 표준화, 기술

Autonomous Car and 5G Technologies: Markets, Standardization, Technologies

리서치사 PracTel, Inc.
발행일 2020년 12월 상품 코드 979703
페이지 정보 영문 238 Pages
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자율주행차와 5G 테크놀러지 : 시장, 표준화, 기술 Autonomous Car and 5G Technologies: Markets, Standardization, Technologies
발행일 : 2020년 12월 페이지 정보 : 영문 238 Pages

본 상품은 영문 자료로 한글과 영문목차에 불일치하는 내용이 있을 경우 영문을 우선합니다. 정확한 검토를 위해 영문목차를 참고해주시기 바랍니다.

세계 각국에서의 지능형 교통시스템(ITS) 기술 개발·도입 상황에 대해 분석했으며, ITS 개요와 현재까지 기술 개발 성과, 표준 규격 제정 동향, 관련 시장/기술(자율주행차, 5G 등) 동향 전망, 주요 기술·기능 개요와 보급 전망, 향후 시장 규모 동향 전망, 향후 시장 성장·기술 진보 가능성, 특허 신청·인증 동향 등의 정보를 정리했습니다.

목차

제1장 서론

제2장 ITS(지능형 교통시스템) : 완벽을 향한 길

  • 응답
  • 구조
  • ITS 주요 기술
  • ITS 주요 서브시스템 : 자율주행차 기초
  • ITS 표준화 : 진행중
    • 개요
    • ETSI - 유럽
    • 미국
    • 국제 규격
    • 요약
  • ITS 애플리케이션
    • V2V(차차간 통신)·V2I(차량·인프라간 통신)
    • 지능형 차량
  • ITS 시장 통계 데이터
    • 개산치
    • 추정치

제3장 커넥티드카

  • 시장 개요·정의
    • 성장 촉진요인
  • 기술적 선택
    • 커넥티드카 : 5.9GHz DSRC(전용협역통신)
      • Arinc(Rockwell Collins)
      • AutoTalks
      • Cohda Wireless
      • Delphi
      • Kapsch
      • NXP
      • Redpine Signals
      • Savari
      • Unex
    • 커넥티드카 : 셀룰러 통신 기술
  • 커넥티드카 : 기능
    • 2개 기술 : 2개 의견
    • 기능 기술
    • 주요 용도
    • 폴리시
    • 선택사항
    • 네트워크 요건
    • 시장 : 커넥티드카
    • 업계
      • AT&T
      • Airbiquity Inc.
      • Apple
      • Broadcom
      • Ericsson
      • Ficosa
      • GM
      • MobilEye(Intel Company)
      • Nokia
      • Qualcomm
      • Sierra Wireless
      • Streetline
      • Verizon
      • Visteon
      • Wind River
      • Zubie
    • NR V2X : C-V2X 진화

제4장 커넥티드카 : 업계 단체와 표준화

  • 업계 단체
    • Open Automotive Alliance
    • 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars
    • Apple - iOS in the Car
    • GSMA Connected Car Forum
    • Car Connectivity Consortium
  • 기준과 규제
    • 국제 공동 개발
    • EU
    • 미국
    • WWW Consortium
    • SAE

제5장 5G 시대

  • 5G 타임테이블(3 GPP-ITU)
  • 참여 기업
  • 5G 활동 분석
    • NGMNLtd : C-V2X 서포터
    • 5G-PPP(5G용 민관 협동)
    • 5G Americas
    • GSMA
    • Verizon 5G Technology Forum(TF)
    • 3GPP - New Radio(NR)

제6장 5G 기술 : 주요 기능

  • 향후 전망
  • 유망한 방향성
    • 요건
    • 공통 견해
    • 미래 : 오늘부터 시작되는 움직임
  • 문제점
  • 이용 사례
    • 일반적인 특성
    • 모바일 브로드밴드
    • 자동차
    • 스마트 사회

제7장 자율주행차 진화

  • 함께 성장
  • 방향성과 문제점
  • ADAS(첨단 운전자 보조 시스템)
  • 현재 상황 : 법률과 보험
    • 미국
    • 영국
  • 주요 이점
  • 솔루션
  • 시장 예측과 가격
  • 단계
    • 필요한 특성
  • 업계와 연구개발(R&D)
    • 자동차 제조업체
    • 연구개발(R&D)과 경쟁사
    • 스타트업
  • 표준화
    • NHTSA
    • SAE International
    • IEEE
    • AECC
    • 요약
  • 신종 코로나바이러스 감염증(COVID-19) : 자율주행차 개발에 대한 영향
    • 주요 변경사항

제8장 LiDAR

  • 상황 개요
    • 전형적인 특징
  • 구조와 기능
    • 다른 센서와의 비교
  • 센서와 악천후
  • 업계
    • AEye
    • Analog Devices
    • ASC
    • Baraja
    • Cepton
    • Ibeo(SICK AG의 자회사)
    • Innoviz
    • Lasertel(Leonardo의 자회사)
    • Luminar
    • LeddarTech
    • Osram/Phantom Intelligence
    • Quanergy
    • TriLumina
    • Velodyne
    • Waymo(Alphabet)
    • Chinese Lidar Industry
  • LiDAR의 이점과 제약
  • 시장

제9장 결론

첨부 자료 I : 자율주행/커넥티드카 - 특허 조사(2017-2020년)

첨부 자료 II : 자동차용 LiDAR - 특허 조사(2017-2020년)

KSM 21.01.13

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
  • Figure 2: Europe - Standardization Organizations
  • Figure 3: U.S. - ITS Standardizations Bodies
  • Figure 4: NTCIP Structure
  • Figure 5: International -Standardization Bodies - ITS
  • Figure 6: Estimate: Global Market - ITS ($B)
  • Figure 7: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)
  • Figure 8: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B)
  • Figure 9: Connected Car - Sensors
  • Figure 10: 5.9 GHz DSRC - Frequencies Allocation and Channelization
  • Figure 11: 5.9 GHz DSRC - Modified Spectrum Proposal
  • Figure 12: Industry Cooperation
  • Figure 13: ITS-5.9 GHz DSRC - Illustration
  • Figure 14: Communications Model: WAVE
  • Figure 15: 802.11p - Communications
  • Figure 16: Signals Flow
  • Figure 17: Collision Detection/Avoidance System
  • Figure 18: Work Zone Warning
  • Figure 19: "Smart" Car
  • Figure 20: DSRC Worldwide - Spectrum Allocation
  • Figure 21: DSRC: Spectrum Allocation Details
  • Figure 22: Channel Assignment - 5.9 GHz DSRC
  • Figure 23: 5.9 GHz DSRC Transmission Characteristics and Channelization
  • Figure 24: Spectrum Details - Overlapping Wi-Fi
  • Figure 25: Major Categories-DSRC Services
  • Figure 26: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance
  • Figure 27: 5.9 GHz DSRC Protocols - Summary
  • Figure 28: Estimate: 5.9 GHz DSRC U.S. Market Size ($B)
  • Figure 29: C-V2X Modes of Communications
  • Figure 30: 3GPP Schedule - Evolution of LTE-based Communications
  • Figure 31: D2D Communications - Evolution
  • Figure 32: LTE ProSe Functions - Discovery and Communications
  • Figure 33: 3GPP - C-V2X Technology Development
  • Figure 34: Connected Car Functionalities
  • Figure 35: Network Requirements - Connected Car Connectivity
  • Figure 36: Estimate - Global Market - CC Sales (Mil. Units))
  • Figure 37: Estimate: Global Automotive Wireless Market - Equipment Sales ($B)
  • Figure 38: Estimate - Global - Service Providers Revenue - Connected Car ($B)
  • Figure 39: Connected Car Penetration - U.S. (%)
  • Figure 40: ITU-R Schedule and Process for IMT-2020
  • Figure 41: 3GPP - Tentative Time Line - 5G Standardization
  • Figure 42: Time Line - NR Development
  • Figure 43: Transition - Current View
  • Figure 44: 5G Spectrum
  • Figure 45: 5G Technologies Directions
  • Figure 46: 5G - related Characteristics
  • Figure 47: 5G Use Cases - Rate of Transmission and Latency
  • Figure 48: U.S. - Driverless Car Legislative Status (as of 2019)
  • Figure 49: Estimate: Driverless Cars Sold - Global (%)
  • Figure 50: Evolution Path - Driverless Car
  • Figure 51: NHTSA - Car Automation Levels
  • Figure 52: Lidar and Radar Properties
  • Figure 53: Estimate: Lidar Market Size - Global ($B)
  • Figure 54: Estimate: Automotive Lidar Market Size - Global ($B)

List of Tables

  • Table 1: ETSI G5 Characteristics
  • Table 2: Service Categories
  • Table 3: Service Requirements
  • Table 4: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
  • Table 5: 802.11p and 802.11bd
  • Table 6: LTE - D2D and Broadcast Modes - Performance Comparison
  • Table 7: Major Parameters - 5.9 GHz DSRC and C-V2X
  • Table 8: NR V2X vs 802.11bd
  • Table 9: 5G Network Major Characteristics
  • Table 10: 5G Use Cases
  • Table 11: Driverless Car Development - Covid-19 Impact
  • Table 12: Projections
  • Table 13: Lidar Characteristics - Automotive Applications
  • Table 14: Lidar and Video Camera Properties

This report updates and extends the Practel "Intelligent Car" project.

The goal of this report is to:

  • Analyze current trends in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) development
  • Address the progress in the ITS standardization
  • Analyze technological and marketing ITS specifics
  • Address the connected car trend
  • Analyze the connected car technologies and marketing specifics; identify major industry players and their portfolios
  • Present the current status of the driverless (autonomous) car development
  • Analyze marketing and technological driverless car specifics
  • Analyze the lidar technologies and market as well as the industry for automotive applications
  • Show how communications industry is preparing for the 5G era, emphasizing the role of 5G mobile communications in supporting the driverless car development. The driverless car is one of important 5G use cases.

Though never managing to successfully predict what each forthcoming generation of mobile technology should deliver to satisfy future users, the industry has nonetheless reached some consensus on the use cases for 5G communications. Machine to machine communications is one. 5G should enable the IoT, the future where all online-enabled objects will quietly pass on data to each other or to a central computer.

Facilitating the use of mobile networks by connected and autonomous cars, remotely controlled industrial robots, telehealth systems, and smart city infrastructure are also all expected to figure large in 5G thinking. There is a common notion the industry is hoping that 5G will solve problems we don't have today, but those that could hold us back years in the future - and one of the best examples to such a statement is a driverless car.

  • This particular report addresses the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) progress in reaching its ultimate goal - to make a car "intelligent" enough to safely drive without a human participation. It also updates the status of a driverless car development in connection with transition to the 5G era: the industry identified driverless cars as most viable form of ITS, dominating the roadways by 2040 and sparking dramatic changes in vehicular travel. The report discusses the specifics of the 5G era as they are seen by the industry at the present time with emphasis on what 5G technologies can bring to the driverless car.
  • Such a car was considered by many as a scientists' dream only 10-15 years ago; now it is a reality and all predictions are that driverless cars will hit the roads in 6-8 years. Fully developed driverless car needs support of communications systems evolving in the transition to 5G; and these two developments are interrelated - a driverless car becomes a 5G use case.

The report provides overview of the current status of the driverless car development, pictures the future steps, which the industry is planning, analyzes roadblocks, and emphasizes the importance of standardization - several organizations are working in this direction. The analysis concentrates on technological and marketing aspects of driverless cars and also on the status of the industry.

The survey of driverless cars projects currently underway is conducted; as well as the survey of related patents (2017-2020). Initial marketing statistics are developed.

  • The detailed analysis of two important parts of a driverless car - lidar (one of the main components of ADAS) and the communications gear - "connected car" - is performed. The survey of recent auto lidar patents is also performed.

A driverless car, for simplicity, may be described as a combination of a connected car and ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems); and other parts. The ADAS important part is driverless car "eyes" - an instrument that can "see" surroundings and provide the information to the car for the analysis and taking relevant actions. One of most promising technologies that make cars "to see" is lidar, which is composed of laser and other parts. The report provides the detailed analysis of lidar technical and marketing characteristics and the survey of the industry.

The detailed analysis of connected cars specifics, standardization, technical characteristics and economics are presented in this report. The companies - contributors to the connected car market development - are identified and their portfolios are analyzed.

The report also emphasizes the importance of 5G mobile networking as a basis for the driverless car ITS revolution. With "ultimate" ITS, it is expected that safety on the roads will be drastically improved and the society will be free from massive amount of injuries and deaths on the roads as well as from damages to the economy due to accidents and traffic jams.

A preliminary evaluation of the COVID-19 effect on the driverless car industry development is presented.

The report is intended to technical and managerial staff involved in the advanced ITS development; and for specialists in communications technologies who support such a development.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Overview
  • 1.2 Report Goal
  • 1.3 Report Scope
  • 1.4 Research Methodology
  • 1.5 Target Audience

2.0 ITS: Roads to Perfection

  • 2.1 Response
  • 2.2 Structure
  • 2.3 ITS Key Technologies
  • 2.4 ITS Main Subsystems - Driverless Car Basis
  • 2.5 ITS Standardization: In Progress
    • 2.5.1 Overview
    • 2.5.2 ETSI - Europe
    • 2.5.3 U.S.
      • 2.5.3.1 General
      • 2.5.3.2 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP)
    • 2.5.4 International
      • 2.5.4.1 General
      • 2.5.4.2 ITU
    • 2.5.5 Summary
  • 2.6 ITS Applications
    • 2.6.1 V2V and V2I
    • 2.6.2 Intelligent Vehicles
  • 2.7 ITS Market Statistics
    • 2.7.1 General
    • 2.7.2 Estimate

3.0 Connected Car

  • 3.1 General - Definition
    • 3.1.1 Driving Forces
  • 3.2 Alternatives: Technologies
    • 3.2.1 Connected Car - 5.9 GHz DSRC
      • 3.2.1.1 Background
        • 3.2.1.1.1 Recent Developments
      • 3.2.1.2 Efforts - History
      • 3.2.1.3 Place
      • 3.2.1.4 Structure and Protocols
      • 3.2.1.5 Requirements
      • 3.2.1.6 Milestones
      • 3.2.1.7 IEEE 802.11p
        • 3.2.1.7.1 General
        • 3.2.1.7.2 Objectives and Status
        • 3.2.1.7.3 ASTM Contributions
        • 3.2.1.7.4 Characteristics
      • 3.2.1.8 IEEE 1609
        • 3.2.1.8.1 General
        • 3.2.1.8.2 Overview
        • 3.2.1.8.3 IEEE 1609 in Use
      • 3.2.1.9 ETSI ITS-G5 - Major Features
      • 3.2.1.10 ISO and DSRC
      • 3.2.1.11 5.9 GHz DSRC Components and Procedures
        • 3.2.1.11.1 Components
        • 3.2.1.11.2 Procedures
      • 3.2.1.12 Major Applications
        • 3.2.1.12.1 EPS
      • 3.2.1.13 Spectrum - DSRC
        • 3.2.1.13.1 Channels Designation
      • 3.2.1.14 Services
        • 3.2.1.14.1 Major Services
        • 3.2.1.14.2 Service Categories/QoS
        • 3.2.1.14.3 Service Requirements
      • 3.2.1.15 Summary: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
      • 3.2.1.16 Market Segment and Industry
        • 3.2.1.16.1 Market Drivers
        • 3.2.1.16.2 Market Requirements
        • 3.2.1.16.3 Market Estimate - 5.9 GHz DSRC
      • 3.2.1.17 Industry
        • 3.2.1.17.1 Industry Coalition
        • 3.2.1.17.2 Recent Progress
        • 3.2.1.17.3 Vendors
          • Arinc (Rockwell Collins)
          • AutoTalks
          • Cohda Wireless
          • Delphi
          • Kapsch
          • NXP
          • Redpine Signals
          • Savari
          • Unex
      • 3.2.1.18 Enhancing 802.11p - 802.11bd
    • 3.2.2 Connected Car - Cellular Technologies
      • 3.2.2.1 General
      • 3.2.2.2 3GPP Activities
        • 3.2.2.2.1 D2D Communications
        • 3.2.2.2.2 C-V2X Broadcast
        • 3.2.2.2.3 Performance Comparison
  • 3.3 Connected Car - Features
    • 3.3.3 Two Technologies - Two Opinions
      • 3.3.3.1 Governments
      • 3.3.3.2 Comparison
    • 3.3.4 Functional Technologies
      • 3.3.4.1 Over the Air Updates
    • 3.3.5 Major Applications
    • 3.3.6 Policies
    • 3.3.7 Choices
    • 3.3.8 Network Requirements
    • 3.3.9 Market: Connected Car
    • 3.3.10 Industry
      • AT&T
      • Airbiquity Inc.
      • Apple
      • Broadcom
      • Ericsson
      • Ficosa
      • GM
      • MobilEye (Intel Company)
      • Nokia
      • Qualcomm
      • Sierra Wireless
      • Streetline
      • Verizon
      • Visteon
      • Wind River
      • Zubie
    • 3.3.11 NR V2X - Evolution of C-V2X

4.0 Connected Car - Industry Groups and Standardization

  • 4.1 Industry Groups
    • 4.1.1 Open Automotive Alliance
    • 4.1.2 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars
    • 4.1.3 Apple - iOS in the Car
    • 4.1.4 GSMA Connected Car Forum
    • 4.1.5 Car Connectivity Consortium
  • 4.2 Standards and Regulations
    • 4.2.1 Joint Efforts
    • 4.2.2 EU
    • 4.2.3 U.S.
    • 4.2.4 WWW Consortium
    • 4.2.5 SAE

5.0 5G Era

  • 5.1 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU)
  • 5.2 Contributors
  • 5.3 5G Activity Survey
    • 5.3.1 NGMN Ltd - Supporter of C-V2X
      • 5.3.1.1 5G White Papers
    • 5.3.2 5G-PPP (5G Public Private Partnership)
    • 5.3.3 5G Americas
    • 5.3.4 GSMA
      • 5.3.4.1 GSMA Report on 5G
        • 5.3.4.1.1 Vision
        • 5.3.4.1.2 The Evolution: From 4G to 5G
        • 5.3.4.1.3 5G Use Cases
    • 5.3.5 Verizon 5G Technology Forum (TF)
    • 5.3.6 3GPP - New Radio (NR)

6.0 5G Technologies - Main Features

  • 6.1 Look into Future
  • 6.2 Promising Directions
    • 6.2.1 Requirements
    • 6.2.2 Common Views
      • 6.2.2.1 5G Spectrum
    • 6.2.3 Future - Starts Today
  • 6.3 Issues
  • 6.4 Use Cases
    • 6.4.1 General -Characteristics
    • 6.4.2 Mobile Broadband
    • 6.4.3 Automotive
    • 6.4.4 Smart Society

7.0 Evolving of Driverless Car

  • 7.1 Growing Together
  • 7.2 Directions and Issues
  • 7.3 ADAS
  • 7.4 Current Status - Legislation and Insurance
    • 7.4.1 The U.S.
    • 7.4.2 The GB
  • 7.5 Major Benefits
  • 7.6 Solutions
  • 7.7 Market Projections and Price
  • 7.8 Phases
    • 7.8.1 Required Characteristics
  • 7.9 Industry and R&D
    • 7.9.1 Automakers
      • 7.9.1.1 Audi
        • 7.9.1.1.1 First Level 3 Car
        • 7.9.1.1.2 Progress
      • 7.9.1.2 Ford
      • 7.9.1.3 GM
      • 7.9.1.4 Nissan
      • 7.9.1.5 Daimler/Mercedes
      • 7.9.1.6 VW and AdaptIVe Consortium
      • 7.9.1.7 Volvo Cars
      • 7.9.1.8 Tesla Motors
      • 7.9.1.9 SAIC
      • 7.9.1.10 Other
    • 7.9.2 R&D and Competitors
      • 7.9.2.1 Alphabet/Google - ProjectX -Waymo
      • 7.9.2.2 Baidu
      • 7.9.2.3 DOTs
      • 7.9.2.4 Telecom Readiness: Driverless Car - 5G Communications
        • 7.9.2.4.1 Huawei
        • 7.9.2.4.2 Swisscom
      • 7.9.2.5 QNX
      • 7.9.2.6 Continental Automotive
      • 7.9.2.7 Nvidia
    • 7.9.3 Start-ups
      • 7.9.3.1 Uber
      • 7.9.3.2 Lyft
      • 7.9.3.3 Nuro
  • 7.10 Standardization
    • 7.10.1 NHTSA
      • 7.10.1.1 Levels
    • 7.10.2 SAE International
      • 7.10.2.1 USA Preparedness
    • 7.10.3 IEEE
    • 7.10.4 AECC
    • 7.10.5 Summary
  • 7.11 COVID-19: Impact on Driverless Car Development
    • 7.11.1 Major Changes

8.0 Lidar

  • 8.1 General
    • 8.1.1 Typical Characteristics
  • 8.2 Structure and Functionalities
    • 8.2.1 Comparison with other Sensors
  • 8.3 Sensors and Bad Weather
  • 8.4 Industry
    • AEye
    • Analog Devices
    • ASC
    • Baraja
    • Cepton
    • Ibeo (subsidiary of SICK AG)
    • Innoviz
    • Lasertel (a Leonardo Company)
    • Luminar
    • LeddarTech
    • Osram/Phantom Intelligence
    • Quanergy
    • TriLumina
    • Velodyne
    • Waymo (Alphabet)
    • Chinese Lidar Industry
  • 8.5 Lidars Benefits and Limitations
  • 8.6 Market

9.0 Conclusions

Attachment I: Driverless/Connected Car Patents Survey (2017-2020)

Attachment II: Automotive Lidar-Patents Survey (2017-2020)

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