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리튬이온 배터리 : 2029년까지 전망(제4판)

Lithium-ion Batteries: Outlook to 2029, 4th Edition

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발행일 2020년 05월 상품 코드 930100
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리튬이온 배터리 : 2029년까지 전망(제4판) Lithium-ion Batteries: Outlook to 2029, 4th Edition
발행일 : 2020년 05월 페이지 정보 : 영문

리튬이온 배터리 제조에 필요한 원재료 및 정제 재료의 공급은 석유 공급과 같이 전략적으로 되고 있으며, 세계의 자동차, 에너지, 일렉트로닉스 산업과 그 공급망 정세를 변화시키고 있습니다.

리튬이온 배터리는 1990년대 가전의 휴대화와 경량화를 가능하게 했습니다. 2010년 이후 정부, 운송, 유틸리티, 화학제품 기업들이 깨끗한 운송 및 에너지 분야에서의 지위 확립을 위해 리튬이온 배터리에 대한 투자 계획을 빠른 속도로 추진하고 있으며, 운송 및 에너지 분야에 새로운 혁명을 가져왔습니다. 10년 후까지 예상되는 배터리 수요에 대응하기 위해서 배터리 제조업체는 생산능력 증강을 추진하고 있습니다. 주요 배터리 제조업체는 향후 10년간 중국, 미국, 유럽에서 생산능력을 확대하기 위해 1,500억 달러 이상의 투자를 계획하고 있습니다. 이로 인해 10년 후 연간 배터리 용량은 2TWh 이상 증가할 것으로 예측되고 있습니다. 이러한 생산량에 대응하기 위해 업스트림 공급망은 특히 아시아 이외 지역에서 전구체, 음극재, 양극재, 분리막, 전해액에 특화된 새로운 제조 플랜트를 설립하며 대응하고 있습니다.

세계의 리튬이온 배터리(Lithium-ion Batteries) 시장에 대해 조사했으며, 제품, 밸류체인, 업계 구조, 리튬이온 배터리의 환경에 대한 영향, 개발 동향, 규제 환경 및 기업 포지셔닝 등에 대해 분석했습니다.

제1장 개요

  • 보고서의 요점
  • 코로나19(COVID-19)가 전기자동차 전망에 미치는 영향 평가

제2장 리튬이온 배터리 플로차트

제3장 2019년의 리튬이온 배터리 공급

  • 배터리 업계 서론
  • 대형 리튬이온 배터리 생산
  • 소형 리튬이온 배터리 생산
  • 음극재 생산
  • 양극재 생산
  • 분리막 생산
  • 전해액 생산
  • 전해동박/집전체 생산

제4장 리튬이온 배터리 시장

  • 리튬이온 배터리의 최종 용도 : 용도별
    • 경쟁 기술
    • 휴대용 일렉트로닉스
    • 전력 용도
    • 동력 용도
    • ESS
    • 자동차
  • 리튬이온 배터리의 최종 용도 : 지역별
    • 휴대용 일렉트로닉스 : 지역별
    • 전력 용도 : 지역별
    • 동력 용도 : 지역별
    • ESS : 지역별
    • 자동차 : 지역별
  • 밸류체인에서의 리튬이온 배터리 사용

제5장 리튬이온 배터리 원재료 수요

  • 알루미늄
    • 리튬이온 배터리 업계에서의 알루미늄
    • 알루미늄 수요와 공급
    • 알루미늄 가격
  • 코발트
    • 코발트 산업의 구조
    • 리튬이온 배터리 업계에서의 코발트
    • 코발트 수요와 공급
    • 코발트 가격
  • 구리
    • 리튬이온 배터리 업계에서의 구리
    • 구리 수요와 공급
    • 구리 가격
  • 흑연
    • 리튬이온 배터리 업계에서의 흑연
    • 흑연 수요와 공급
    • 흑연 가격
  • 리튬
    • 리튬이온 배터리 업계에서의 리튬
    • 리튬 수요와 공급
    • 리튬 가격
  • 망간
    • 리튬이온 배터리에서의 망간 소비량
    • 망간 금속 수요와 공급
    • 망간 금속 가격
    • 황산 망간 수요와 공급
    • 황산 망간 가격
  • 니켈
    • 니켈 수요와 공급
    • 니켈 가격

제6장 비용, 매출, 수익

  • 리튬이온 배터리의 비용 구조
  • EV 팩 제조
  • 기가팩토리에서의 배터리 제조 비용
  • 비용 전망

제7장 리튬이온 배터리 전망

  • 시장 발전 전망
  • 배터리 공급망 공급 전망
  • 시장 균형 전망

제8장 리튬이온 배터리 기술

  • 리튬이온 배터리의 구조
  • 음극재
  • 양극재
  • 집전체 재료
  • 전해액
  • 분리막 재료
  • 제조 공정 및 밸류체인
  • 고체전지

제9장 휴대용 일렉트로닉스용 리튬이온 배터리

제10장 전력용 리튬이온 배터리

제11장 동력용 리튬이온 배터리

제12장 에너지 저장용 리튬이온 배터리

제13장 자동차용 리튬이온 배터리

제14장 배터리 재활용 및 2차 공급 예측

  • 리튬이온 재활용 개요
  • 리튬이온 재활용 과정
  • 음극에서 양극으로의 재활용
  • 재활용 비용
  • 시장 상황
  • 리튬이온 배터리 재활용 예측

제15장 지속 가능성

제16장 기업 개요

  • 배터리 제조업체
    • CATL
    • Guoxuan
    • BYD
    • Farasis
    • SVOLT
    • LG Chem
    • Panasonic
    • Lishen
    • Samsung SDI
    • SK Innovation
    • AESC
    • CALB
    • BAK
    • Coslight
    • Beijing Guoneng(National) Battery Technology
    • Microvast
  • 양극재 제조업체
    • BTR New Energy Materials
    • Hitachi
    • Jiangxi Zichen Technology
    • Shanshan Group
    • Shenzhen Sinuo Industrial Development
    • POSCO
  • 음극재 제조업체
    • B&M
    • BASF
    • Changyuan Lico
    • Dynanonic
    • Easpring
    • Ecopro
    • L&F
    • Nichia Corp
    • Ningbo Ronbay(Ningbo Jinhe)
    • Sumitomo Metal Mining
    • Umicore
    • Xiamen Tungsten
    • ZEC(Zhenhua E-Chem)
  • 전해액 제조업체
    • Central Glass
    • Do-Fluoride Chemicals
    • Foosung
    • Jiangsu Bicon Pharmaceutical(formerly Jiangsu Jiujiujiu)
    • Kanto Denka Kogyo
    • Mitsubishi Chemical
    • Morita Chemical
    • PANAX-Etec
    • Shanshan Group
    • Shenzhen Capchem
    • Soulbrain
    • Tinci Materials
    • Tonze Electric
    • UBE
    • Zhangjiagang Guotai - Huarong
  • 분리막 제조업체
    • Asahi Kasei
    • SEMCORP
  • 전해동박 제조업체
    • Nan Ya Plastics
    • Kingboard Copper Foil
    • Lingbao Wason
    • Furukawa Electric

제17장 거시경제 전망

LSH 20.06.09

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Market structure evolution, 2010-2019
  • Table 2: Covid-19 EV scenarios summary table
  • Table 3: Quick recovery: EV market impact
  • Table 4: Recession & slow recovery: EV market impact, 2020-2029
  • Table 5: Market structure evolution (2010 -- 2019)
  • Table 6: Top-30 large-sized battery manufacturers, 2019
  • Table 7: World: Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2019
  • Table 8: Geographic relationship between battery manufacturing capacity and automotive assembly lines in the USA, 2019
  • Table 9: Geographic relationship between battery manufacturing capacity and automotive assembly lines in the Europe, 2019
  • Table 10: World summary of manufacturing plant metrics
  • Table 11: Plant breakdown by capacity brackets, 2029
  • Table 12: Top 20 largest lithium-ion battery cell plants in 2019
  • Table 13: Modular gigafactory master plan
  • Table 14: Average cost per gigawatt hour forecast
  • Table 15: Selected top 15 projects with lowest cost per GWh
  • Table 16: Example of factory breakdown: LG Chem, Nanjing II plant in China (2023)
  • Table 17: Selected industrial policy measures by company, country
  • Table 18: World: cathode production capacity by manufacturer, 2019
  • Table 19: World: Anode production capacity by manufacturer, 2019
  • Table 20: World: Main producers of Li-ion battery electrolyte salts, 2019
  • Table 21: World: Main producers of Li-ion battery electrolyte solutions, 2019
  • Table 22: Details of major electro-deposited copper foil producers, 2019
  • Table 23: Li-ion-based portable electronics capacity by country/region, 2019
  • Table 24: Li-ion power capacity by country/region, 2019
  • Table 25: Aluminium used in battery technologies, 2013-2029
  • Table 26: Cobalt used in battery technologies, 2013-2029
  • Table 27: Copper foil used in battery technologies, 2013-2029
  • Table 28: Graphite used in lithium-ion batteries, 2013-2029
  • Table 29: Lithium used in battery technologies, 2013-2029
  • Table 30: Manganese consumption by form in lithium-ion, 2011-2019
  • Table 31: Manganese consumption by form in lithium-ion, 2020-2029
  • Table 32: Actual and forecast EMM flake prices, 2011-2029
  • Table 33: World: Forecast manganese sulphate prices (32% Mn EXW China), 2020-2029
  • Table 34: Total nickel use in Li-ion batteries by sector, 2013-2029
  • Table 35: Supply and demand scenarios for large cell Li-ion batteries, 2019-2029
  • Table 36: Market structure evolution, 2019 -- 2029
  • Table 37: Top-20 largest plants by country, 2029
  • Table 38: Novel electrolyte additives
  • Table 39: Battery joint ventures between automakers and battery makers, 2009-2020
  • Table 40: Raw materials deals between battery cell makers and miners (2016-2020)
  • Table 41: Raw materials deals between automakers and miners (2010-2020)
  • Table 42: Conflict-free cobalt initiatives by carmakers (2017-2020)
  • Table 43: Cathode manufacturing capacity by cathode type, 2019 vs 2029
  • Table 44: Lag times in first-use or production in portable electronics Li-ion batteries, 2019
  • Table 45: Lag times in first-use or production in automotive Li-ion batteries, 2019
  • Table 46: Characteristics of the main Li-ion battery types
  • Table 47: Influence of selected separator properties on cell production, cell performance, reliability & life, and safety
  • Table 48: Optimal values for separators
  • Table 49: Advanced separator technologies
  • Table 50: List of commercial and operating solid state batteries, 2019
  • Table 51: Summary of ESS technologies
  • Table 52: Suitability of ESS technologies on different energy applications
  • Table 53: ESS outlook by electro-chemical technology, 2019-2029
  • Table 54: Automotive market sales summary, 2010-2019 (unit sales)
  • Table 55: Selected M&A activity and other strategic deals in the automobile manufacturing industry
  • Table 56: Automotive market outlook summary table (unit sales)
  • Table 57: Vehicle segment classification
  • Table 58: Commercial fully electric vehicles examples (BEV)
  • Table 59: Cumulative EV models launched by selected years, 2020-2030
  • Table 60: Automakers' cumulative EV models launched by selected years
  • Table 61: CO2 ICE compliance cost by efficiency device/technology, 2016-2019
  • Table 62: EU emissions standards for diesel passenger cars
  • Table 63: EU emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars
  • Table 64: EU passenger vehicle CO2 emissions targets, 1998-2030
  • Table 65: USA & California emission standards for ICE passenger cars 1: values given for cars at 50k miles (5 years) & cars at 100k miles (10 years)
  • Table 66: USA: Projected fleet-wide CO2 & fuel economy compliance levels, 2018-2025
  • Table 67: China: Implementation dates of emission standards for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 68: Japanese emissions standards for diesel passenger cars
  • Table 69: China: Incentives for EV uptake
  • Table 70: Percentage requirements of NEV production for automotive companies, 2016-2021
  • Table 71: Example China's NEV Credit system
  • Table 72: Compliance pathway of NEV Credit System
  • Table 73: Announced national/local targets
  • Table 74: Automakers solid-state battery investments & targeted commercial deployment
  • Table 75: Battery companies using LTO anodes (2018)
  • Table 76: Recoverable materials by chemistry
  • Table 77: Mineral recovery technology
  • Table 78: Pristine vs. recovered NCM 111 cathode
  • Table 79: Breakdown of recycling costs of small-sized cells (portable & power applications), 2018
  • Table 80: Breakdown of recycling costs of large-sized cells (EV & ESS applications), 2018
  • Table 81: Recycling costs comparison by operation
  • Table 82: Top-ten recycling companies in China
  • Table 83: Top-ten recycling companies in Korea
  • Table 84: Top-ten recycling companies in Japan
  • Table 85: Top-ten recycling companies in Europe
  • Table 86: Top-ten recycling companies in North America
  • Table 87: Contemporary Amperex Technology: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 88: Guoxuan: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 89: BYD: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 90: Farasis: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 91: SVOLT: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 92: LG Chem Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 93: Panasonic: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 94: Lishen: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 95: Samsung SDI Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 96: SK Innovation Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 97: AESC Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 98: CALB Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 99: BAK Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 100: Coslight Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 101: Beijing Guoneng Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 102: Microvast Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 103: BTR New Energy Materials: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 104: Hitachi: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 105 Jiangxi Zichen Technology: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 106: Shanshan Group: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 107: Shenzhen Sinuo Industrial Development: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 108: POSCO: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 109: Tianjin B&M: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 110: BASF Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 111: Changyuan Lico: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 112: Dongguan Kaijin: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 113: Beijing Easpring Material Technology: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 114: Ecopro Company Ltd: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 115: L&F Material Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 116: Nichia Corp Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 117: Ningbo Jinhe: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 118: Sumitomo Metal Mining Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 119: Umicore NV: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 120: Xiamen Tungsten: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 121: Zhenhua E-Chem: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 122: Central Glass Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 123: Do-Fluoride Chemicals: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 124: Foosung Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 125: Jiangsu Bicon Pharmaceutical: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 126: Kanto Denka Kogyo Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 127: Mitsubishi Chemical: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 128: Morita Chemical Industries Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 129: PANAX-Etec Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 130: Shanshan Group: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 131: Shenzhen Capchem: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 132: Soulbrain Company: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 133 Tinci Materials: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 134: Guangdong Tonze Electric: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 135: UBE Industries: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 136: Zhangjiagang Guotai-Huarong: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 137: Asahi Kasei: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 138: SEMCORP: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 139: SEMCORP: Plant capacity details by product type, 2019
  • Table 140: Company: Nan Ya Plastics: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 141: Company: Kingboard Copper Foil: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 142: Company: Lingbao Wason: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 143: Company: Furukawa Electric: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 144: Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 145: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 146: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 147: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 148: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 149: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Li-ion battery demand by end-use application, 2000-2019
  • Figure 2: Competing electrochemical battery technologies in analysed end-uses, 2000-2019
  • Figure 3: Annual grid & off-grid ESS capacity by electro-chemical battery technology
  • Figure 4: ESS energy application of Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 5: Passenger electric vehicle sales by powertrain type, 2010-2029
  • Figure 6: Production cost parity with ICE vehicles
  • Figure 7: Flowchart of Li-ion battery supply chain
  • Figure 8: Li-ion cell manufacturing capacity, 2010-2019
  • Figure 9: Outlook cathode materials shares across all end-uses, 2010-2029
  • Figure 10: Intensity of use in cathode materials, 2019-2029
  • Figure 11: Li-ion cell cost structure (% kWh at cell level)
  • Figure 12: Cost structure of Li-ion EV pack, 2019
  • Figure 13: Outlook for Li-ion cell costs. Excluding margins, 2019-2029
  • Figure 14: Li-ion battery demand by end-use market vs. manufacturing capacity, 2019-2029
  • Figure 15: Outlook for lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by world region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 16: Market size (US$ Bn) ICE powertrain industry vs. Li-ion battery industry
  • Figure 17: Global passenger car sales
  • Figure 18: Passenger car sales vs. Plug-in EV passenger sales
  • Figure 19: Covid-19 EV sales scenarios, 2020
  • Figure 20: Impact on EV sales of 1-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 21: Impact on EV sales of 2-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 22: Impact on EV sales of 4-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 23: Impact on EV sales of 6-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 24: Auto sales vs. GDP growth
  • Figure 25: Quick recovery: GDP & automotive market impact
  • Figure 26: Quick recovery: EV market impact
  • Figure 27: Recession & slow recovery: GDP & automotive market impact
  • Figure 28: Recession & slow recovery: EV market impact, 2019-2029
  • Figure 29: Short-term impact scenarios on battery capacity , 2020
  • Figure 30: Long-term impact scenarios on battery capacity , 2020-2029
  • Figure 31: Overview of the lithium-ion battery value chain in 2019
  • Figure 32: Li-ion cell structure including exterior cell components
  • Figure 33: Gravimetric Energy density at cathode level, 2019
  • Figure 34: Cell format used by automakers in plug-in vehicles (Count of public battery contracts from 2010 to 2019)
  • Figure 35: Energy density (Wh/Kg) small cells (<5Ah) vs. large cells (>50Ah)
  • Figure 36: Market share evolution of large-sized cell maker
  • Figure 37: Market shares of large-sized battery producers, 2010 vs 2019
  • Figure 38: Battery supply deals with Auto OEMs vs. installed manufacturing capacity , 2019
  • Figure 39: Plant utilization rates: manufacturing capacity vs. market demand, 2012-2020
  • Figure 40: World: Historic lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 41: World: Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2019
  • Figure 42: Manufacturing capacity of LG Chem and Panasonic outside their home countries
  • Figure 43: Value of battery cells supplied by Asian companies to European Auto OEMs, 2010-2019
  • Figure 44: Number of projects by capacity bracket, 2029
  • Figure 45: Average plant capacity by country, 2019 (Ex. Countries with 1 plant only)
  • Figure 46: Average plant capacity by country, 2029 (Ex. Countries with 1 plant only)
  • Figure 47: Li-ion battery manufacturing plant - process flow
  • Figure 48: Global weighted average cost per GWh, 2010-2030
  • Figure 49: Cost per gigawatt hour (US$/GWh) of selected large-capacity planned battery factories, 2017-2030
  • Figure 50: Gigafactory basic cost breakdown, 2020
  • Figure 51: Cost breakdown of Gigafactory's capital equipment & building , 2020
  • Figure 52: Estimated cumulative private and public investment in lithium-ion battery production plants by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 53: World: Historic small-sized lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 54: Market shares evolution of Li-ion small-sized cell manufacturers, 2010-2019
  • Figure 55: Global market shares of small-size cell battery companies by capacity, 2019
  • Figure 56: Evolution of the small-sized cell market by cell type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 57: Small-sized cell market by company and type of cell, 2018/2019
  • Figure 58: World: Market share of cathode manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 59: Cathode consumption by cathode type, 2013-2019
  • Figure 60: World: Cathode capacity by cathode type, 2019
  • Figure 61: World: Cathode capacity by country, 2019
  • Figure 62: World: Consumption of raw materials in anodes by type, 2013-2019
  • Figure 63: World: Anode capacity by country, 2019
  • Figure 64: World: Market share of anode manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 65: Dry vs. wet process separator market capacity, 2019
  • Figure 66: World: Market share of separator manufacturers (indistinct of dry/wet process), 2019
  • Figure 67: World: Market share of WET-PROCESS separator manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 68: Separators demand vs production capacity (Mm)
  • Figure 69: Energy density comparison between standard Li-ion battery and Li-metal solid-state
  • Figure 70: World: Market share of electrolyte salts manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 71: World: Market share of electrolyte solution manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 72: World: Li-ion battery use by market, 2000-2019
  • Figure 73: Competing battery technologies in the portable electronics, 2000-2019
  • Figure 74: Competing battery technologies in the power applications, 2000-2019
  • Figure 75: Competing battery technologies in the motive applications
  • Figure 76: Installed electrochemical ESS (Inc. grid & off-grid applications), 2000-2019
  • Figure 77: World: Market shares by battery technology in the electrochemical ESS market, (cumulative GWh 2008-2019)
  • Figure 78: Competing battery technologies in the automotive applications, 2000-2019
  • Figure 79: World: Li-ion battery energy consumption by portable products, 2019
  • Figure 80: World: Li-ion battery energy consumption in power products, 2019
  • Figure 81: World: Li-ion battery energy consumption in motive products, 2019
  • Figure 82: World: Share of Li-ion in electrochemical ESS, 2019
  • Figure 83: Grid applications of Lithium-ion technology
  • Figure 84: Automotive sales outlook by xEV type, 2010-2029
  • Figure 85: World: Rechargeable battery energy consumption by xEV type
  • Figure 86: Li-ion portable electronics capacity by region, 2019
  • Figure 87:Li-ion power capacity by country/region, 2019
  • Figure 88: Li-ion electric forklift capacity by country/region, 2019
  • Figure 89: Battery e-scooter / e-bike Li-ion capacity by country/region, 2019
  • Figure 90: Li-ion battery grid-ESS deployed capacity by region, 2019
  • Figure 91: Li-ion battery automotive capacity by region, 2019 (passenger & commercial sales)
  • Figure 92: World: Li-ion battery capacity, production and demand. Large capacity cells.
  • Figure 93: Mine supply of cobalt by source, 2013-2019
  • Figure 94: Refined cobalt supply by country, 2013-2019
  • Figure 95: Historical demand and supply for refined cobalt, 2013-2019
  • Figure 96: Outlook for cobalt demand and supply, by source, 2019-2029
  • Figure 97: Cobalt price and supply/demand forecast, 2019-2029
  • Figure 98: Consumption of copper foil in lithium-ion batteries, 2013-2029
  • Figure 99: Quarterly copper cathode prices, LME cash Q1 2013- Q1 2020
  • Figure 100: Graphite demand from lithium-ion batteries versus total graphite demand, 2009-2029
  • Figure 101: Forecast supply and demand of graphite, 2019-2029
  • Figure 102: Forecast natural flake graphite supply and demand, 2019-2029
  • Figure 103: Forecast synthetic graphite supply and demand, 2019-2029
  • Figure 104: Historical and forecast annual average prices for raw material flake graphite, 2009-2029
  • Figure 105: Quarterly exports and average value of exports of spherical graphite from China, 2013-2019
  • Figure 106: lithium demand from rechargeable battery applications versus total lithium demand, 2013-2029
  • Figure 107: Forecast refined supply and demand of lithium products, 2019-2029
  • Figure 108: Forecast BG lithium hydroxide supply and demand of lithium products, 2019-2029
  • Figure 109: Forecast BG lithium carbonate supply and demand of lithium products, 2019-2029
  • Figure 110: Quarterly spot and contract prices for BG lithium carbonate and hydroxide, Q1-2017-Q4-2019
  • Figure 111: BG lithium compound contract price forecast, 2019-2029
  • Figure 112: Manganese consumption in battery applications versus total manganese demand, 2011-2029
  • Figure 113: Historical manganese metal supply and demand 2011-2019
  • Figure 114: Manganese sulphate supply/demand balance, 2013-2029
  • Figure 115: Primary nickel use in Li-ion and non-Li-ion uses, 2013-2029
  • Figure 116: Forecast market balance, 2019-2029
  • Figure 117: LME nickel cash price forecast, 2019-2029
  • Figure 118: Cost structure of an EV battery pack using a mass-market cathode
  • Figure 119: Cost structure of Li-ion cells
  • Figure 120: Cost structure of cell "Bill of materials", 2019
  • Figure 121: Cost structure of cell processing costs, 2019
  • Figure 122: Cost difference in hard-case and pouch cells, 2019
  • Figure 123: Cost per kWh at cell level (Weighted average cost across all cathodes), 2019
  • Figure 124: Cost structure of cathode manufacture (2019 average, % of total cost)
  • Figure 125: Cost structure of different cathode materials on 'weight' basis, 2019
  • Figure 126: Cost structure of different cathode materials on 'energy' basis, 2019
  • Figure 127: Estimated cost structure of graphite anodes, 2019
  • Figure 128: Estimated cost structure of electrolyte, 2019
  • Figure 129: Estimated cost structure of separators, 2019
  • Figure 130: Estimated cost structure of ancillary materials, not otherwise listed, 2019
  • Figure 131: Cost structure of EV battery pack manufacture, 2019
  • Figure 132: Cost structure of EV battery module, 2019
  • Figure 133: Cost structure of battery EV pack "bill of materials & labour"
  • Figure 134: Cost of Pack Integration into EV by OEM
  • Figure 135: Cell cost by manufacturing stage
  • Figure 136: Electrode processing, 2019
  • Figure 137: Cell assembly, 2019
  • Figure 138: Cell finishing, 2019
  • Figure 139: Historical and forecast inflation-adjusted prices of battery raw materials, 2010-2029 (2019 = 100)
  • Figure 140: Cost of Li-ion cathode materials, 2019-2029
  • Figure 141: Li-ion cell cost forecast by cost factor (ex. Margins), 2019-2029
  • Figure 142: EV battery pack system cost forecast, 2019-2029
  • Figure 143: World Li-ion battery use by market, 2019-2029
  • Figure 144: World: Portable Li-ion battery use by sub-category, 2019-2029
  • Figure 145: World: Forecast power Li-ion battery use by sub-category, 2019-2029
  • Figure 146: World: Forecast motive Li-ion battery use by sub-category, 2019-2029
  • Figure 147: World: Forecast ESS Li-ion battery use, 2019-2029
  • Figure 148: Outlook for electro-chemical ESS in grid/off-grid applications
  • Figure 149: Global penetration rate of electric passenger vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 150: Forecast sales of electric vehicles, 2019-2029
  • Figure 151: World: Outlook for lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2018-2029
  • Figure 152: Top-20 battery companies by battery capacity
  • Figure 153: Capacity additions of battery makers with >30GWh capacity in 2029
  • Figure 154: Capacity additions of battery makers with 10-30GWh capacity in 2029
  • Figure 155: Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity by country , 2019-2029
  • Figure 156: European Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity, 2019 vs. 2029
  • Figure 157: USA's Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity , 2019 vs. 2029
  • Figure 158: Market consolidation scenarios in the battery market, 2029
  • Figure 159: Global plant utilization rates, 2019-2029
  • Figure 160: Production yields and manufacturing losses (% material losses), 2019
  • Figure 161: Economies of scale: Average plant size vs. cost per kWh
  • Figure 162: BYD elongated LFP blade battery cell (cell of 0.6m length)
  • Figure 163: Evolution of Renault Zoe battery cell size (Ah in red box), 2020
  • Figure 164: Battery production capacity of Chinese companies in Europe, 2019-2029
  • Figure 165: Global battery capacity backed by raw materials deals, (% GWh in 2019)
  • Figure 166: Small-sized cell capacity and manufacturers, 2019-2029
  • Figure 167: Small-sized call manufacturers: Market share by manufacturers capacity, 2019-2029
  • Figure 168: World: Cathode production capacity by country1, 2013-2019
  • Figure 169: Forecast cathode market share and intensity of use, 2013-2029
  • Figure 170: LFP cathode manufacturing capacity by company (2019)
  • Figure 171: LFP cathode manufacturing capacity by country (2029)
  • Figure 172: NCM cathode manufacturing capacity by company (2019)
  • Figure 173: NCM cathode manufacturing capacity by country (2029)
  • Figure 174: NCA cathode manufacturing capacity by company (2019)
  • Figure 175: NCA cathode manufacturing capacity by country 2029)
  • Figure 176: LMO cathode manufacturing capacity by company (2019)
  • Figure 177: LMO cathode manufacturing capacity by country (2029)
  • Figure 178: LCO cathode manufacturing capacity by company (2019)
  • Figure 179: LCO cathode manufacturing capacity by country (2029)
  • Figure 180: World: Forecast consumption of raw materials in anodes by type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 181: World: Forecast anode capacity by country, 2029
  • Figure 182: World: Forecast anode capacity by manufacturer, 2019 and 2029
  • Figure 183: Separator capacity by country vs. overall demand
  • Figure 184: Production of separator materials by process type, 2019 & 2029
  • Figure 185: Capacity and production of separators by main manufacturers, 2019 vs. 2029
  • Figure 186: Capacity of electrolyte salts manufacturers, 2019 vs. 2029
  • Figure 187: Forecast electrolyte salts capacity by country 2019 and 2029
  • Figure 188: Capacity of electrolyte solutions by main manufacturers, 2019 vs. 2029
  • Figure 189: Forecast capacity of electrolyte solutions by country 2019 and 2029
  • Figure 190: Forecast copper foil demand from battery applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 191: Production of electro-deposited copper foil by major end-use, 2014-2029
  • Figure 192: Market balance for large-sized Li-ion cells, 2019-2029
  • Figure 193: Market balance for small-sized Li-ion cells, 2019-2029
  • Figure 194: A cylindrical Li-ion battery cell
  • Figure 195: Cell production capacity by cell format: Large-cell format for EV/ESS, 2010-2029
  • Figure 196: A prismatic Li-ion battery cell
  • Figure 197: A standard pouch Li-ion battery cell
  • Figure 198: Battery pack parts and design of Chevrolet Bolt EV
  • Figure 199: Tesla models S battery cooling system: serpentine cooling pipe.
  • Figure 200: Li-ion batteries: Active cathode materials share in 2019
  • Figure 201: Li-ion existing cathode chemistries, 2019
  • Figure 202: Comparison of gravimetric energy density by battery chemistry
  • Figure 203: Comparison of gravimetric energy density by battery chemistry
  • Figure 204: Thermal runaway temperature of different NCM cathodes
  • Figure 205: Single crystal NCM
  • Figure 206: Spherical graphite in the microscope (left) and the finished product (right)
  • Figure 207: Share of anode materials, 2019
  • Figure 208: Li-ion battery copper and aluminium collector foils
  • Figure 209: Simplified supply chain map of major electrolyte products
  • Figure 210: Separator (20,000X magnification)
  • Figure 211: Separator structure and function in a Li-ion battery
  • Figure 212: Dry-process (a) vs. Wet-process (b) separator (microscopic image)
  • Figure 213: Elements in the battery supply chain
  • Figure 214: Simplified value chain for Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 215: From raw material to precursor and part processed products
  • Figure 216: From raw and part processed products to finished cell material
  • Figure 217: From finished cell material to assembled cell
  • Figure 218: From assembled cell to pack to Tier 1 supplier, OEM and installer
  • Figure 219: Relative thickness of solid-electrolyte battery (right) and existing commercial Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 220: Dendrite penetration in liquid-electrolyte Lithium-ion batteries
  • Figure 221: Battery chemistries share in portable electronics, 2000-2019
  • Figure 222: Market shares of cathode materials in Li-ion portable electronics batteries, 2019
  • Figure 223: Portable electronics sales, 2000-2019
  • Figure 224: Portable electronics sales, 2000-2019
  • Figure 225: Forecast portable electronics, 2019-2029
  • Figure 226: Forecast portable electronics, 2019-2029
  • Figure 227: Battery chemistries share in power applications, 2000-2019
  • Figure 228: Market shares of cathode materials in Li-ion power application batteries, 2019
  • Figure 229: Portable electronics sales, 2005-2019
  • Figure 230: Power applications sales, 2000-2019
  • Figure 231: Forecast power devices, 2019-2029
  • Figure 232: Forecast power applications sales, 2019-2029
  • Figure 233: Battery chemistries share in motive applications, 2000-2019
  • Figure 234: Motive cathode chemistries, 2019
  • Figure 235: Sales in motive applications
  • Figure 236: Motive applications sales, 2000-2019
  • Figure 237: Forecast motive applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 238: Forecast motive applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 239: Historic cumulative ESS installations by technology (TWh), 1970-2019
  • Figure 240: Historic cumulative ESS installations by technology (Ex. Pumped hydro), 1985-2019
  • Figure 241: Annual new installations of ESS (ex. Electro-mechanical), 1970-2019
  • Figure 242: Levelized cost of different energy generation sources (US$/MWh) vs. Li-ion manufacturing cost
  • Figure 243: Maturity curve for energy storage technologies
  • Figure 244: Comparison of volumetric and gravimetric energy densities by technology
  • Figure 245: Comparison of power and energy densities by technology
  • Figure 246: Duration (discharge time) & rated power by ESS technology
  • Figure 247: Real usage of an electrochemical ESS system
  • Figure 248: Comparison of lifetimes and cycle life
  • Figure 249: Levelized cost of ESS comparison. Unsubsidized (US$/MWh), 2019
  • Figure 250: Energy Applications for ESS devices
  • Figure 251: Energy applications for ESS systems. All storage technologies, 1980-2019
  • Figure 252: Energy applications for Lithium-ion ESS systems, 2008-2019
  • Figure 253: Grid-ESS new installations by electro-chemical technology, 2008-2019
  • Figure 254: Off-grid ESS new installations by electro-chemical technology, 2008-2019
  • Figure 255: Market size of electro-chemical ESS. Annual new capacity
  • Figure 256: Expected service life of the electro-chemical ESS (Max. discharge cycles)
  • Figure 257: Market share of electro-chemical developers (cumulative MWh installed capacity)
  • Figure 258: Market share of ESS developers using Li-ion batteries (cumulative MWh installed capacity)
  • Figure 259: Outlook for new energy capacity, 2019-2029
  • Figure 260: Outlook for electro-chemical ESS in grid/off-grid applications
  • Figure 261: ESS electro-chemical technology outlook. Grid and Off-grid
  • Figure 262: ESS outlook by electro-chemical technology in 2029
  • Figure 263: Electro-chemical ESS new installations by region
  • Figure 264: Historical sales of passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 265: Automotive sales by geography, 2019
  • Figure 266: Motorization rates forecast, 2010-2029 (Passenger cars per 1,000 persons)
  • Figure 267: Outlook by powertrain type. Passenger & commercial vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 268: Impact of new driving concepts on automotive sales, 2010-2029
  • Figure 269: Outlook for market shares of automotive groups, 2010-2029
  • Figure 270: All electrified (BEV, PHEV, HEV, 48V, FCEV) passenger cars scenarios, 2019-2029
  • Figure 271: Plug-in (BEV & PHEV) passenger cars scenarios
  • Figure 272: Sales of passenger plug-in electric vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 273: Vehicle cost in the C-Segment by powertrain type vs. CO2 reduction , 2019
  • Figure 274: Plug-in passenger cars sales by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 275: Electric vehicle sales vs. production by region, 2029
  • Figure 276: BEV passenger vehicles by segment and modelling approach, 2029
  • Figure 277: PHEV passenger vehicles by segment and modelling approach, 2029
  • Figure 278: Sales of commercial vehicles by powertrain type, 2010-2029
  • Figure 279: Outlook for passenger and commercial electrification rates, 2010-2029
  • Figure 280: Cost parity with ICE car by e-powertrain type by year. No ICE cost change, 2019-2035
  • Figure 281: Cost parity with ICE car by e-powertrain type. With ICE CO2 compliance cost, 2019-2020
  • Figure 282: Cost of vehicle manufacturing by powertrain type. ICE CO2 compliance cost + aggressive battery cost improvements, 2019-2035
  • Figure 283: Capital investments of a dedicated e-platform vs existing ICE platform, 2019
  • Figure 284: Automotive OEMs attitude towards EVs & dedicated e-manufacturing platforms
  • Figure 285: Plug-in vehicles produced by manufacturing platform, 2019-2029
  • Figure 286: Battery capacity requirements by 2029 by dedicated e-platform
  • Figure 287: Plug-in (BEV + PHEV) vehicle production in 2019 by OEM (% units produced)
  • Figure 288: Plug-in (BEV + PHEV) vehicle production in 2029 by OEM (% units produced)
  • Figure 289: Plug-in EV manufacturing by country in 2019 (% units produced)
  • Figure 290: Plug-in EV manufacturing by country in 2029 (% units produced)
  • Figure 291: CO2 emissions standards, 2007-2030
  • Figure 292: Total economic incentives by country, 2018/2019
  • Figure 293: Outlook for battery capacity by vehicle category
  • Figure 294: Outlook for battery capacity by EV type
  • Figure 295: Passenger vehicles: Battery capacity by e-powertrain type & car model
  • Figure 296: Commercial vehicles: Battery capacity by e-powertrain type & car model
  • Figure 297: Outlook for weighted average battery capacity by powertrain type, 2010-2029
  • Figure 298: BEV weighted average battery capacity
  • Figure 299: BEV weighted average battery capacity by geography, 2012-2019
  • Figure 300: PHEV weighted average battery capacity by geography, 2012-2019
  • Figure 301: Passenger xEV battery utilization
  • Figure 302: Battery capacity by automotive OEM in plug-in vehicles in 2029
  • Figure 303: Volkswagen battery capacity by segment & by car model in 2029
  • Figure 304: Material composition of major chemistry of cathode
  • Figure 305: Energy density comparison at cathode, cell and pack level by cathode chemistry
  • Figure 306: Cathode chemistries used in transportation batteries, 2019 (*Interpretation: dark blue signals strong influence. Light blue signals weak influence)
  • Figure 307: Cathode materials in the automotive industry. Cathode produced for passenger & commercial vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 308: Cathode materials in the automotive industry. Cathode produced for passenger & commercial vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 309: Cathode technology roadmap of Automotive OEMs in passenger cars
  • Figure 310: Cost of automotive Li-ion cathode materials at 2019 metals prices
  • Figure 311: Examples of cathode consumption (kg) and value in selected passenger BEVs
  • Figure 312: Metal prices in different years and their impact on NCM 523 cathode
  • Figure 313: Worst & best historical battery metals prices impact on the cathode materials value of Volkswagen ID.3 with 49kWh pack using NCM 712, (2010-2019 prices)
  • Figure 314: Si-anode commercial roadmap for auto OEMs, 2019-2029
  • Figure 315: Carbon anodes vs. Si-C anodes in passenger cars, 2019-2029
  • Figure 316: Assumed evolution of anode chemistries introduced into commercial use by major battery suppliers, 2010-2030
  • Figure 317: Solid-state patents & patent applications by company, December 2018
  • Figure 318: Estimated batteries powered by LTO anodes, 2010-2029
  • Figure 319: Examples of integration in the recycling industry
  • Figure 320: EV supply chain including recovery
  • Figure 321: Three general phases in LIB recycling and the materials obtained
  • Figure 322: Pre-treatment process of spent Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 323: NCM direct cathode recovery route
  • Figure 324: Li-ion battery demand, EOL (End-of-life) and recycling, 2019-2029
  • Figure 325: Batteries reaching EOL by Li-ion application, 2019-2029
  • Figure 326: Forecast of recycled Li-ion battery materials, 2019-2029
  • Figure 327: Forecast of recycled lithium by Li-ion chemistry, 2010-2029
  • Figure 328: Forecast of recycled cobalt by Li-ion chemistry, 2010-2029
  • Figure 329: Forecast of recycled nickel by Li-ion chemistry, 2010-2029
  • Figure 330: Forecast of recycled manganese by Li-ion chemistry, 2010-2029
  • Figure 331: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 332: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 333: Life-circle of a vehicle
  • Figure 334: CO2 equivalent emissions of BEVs and ICE vehicles throughout life cycle
  • Figure 335: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions of BEVs and ICE vehicles in production and use stage
  • Figure 336: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions in EV production
  • Figure 337: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions in battery pack production (NCM111 case)
  • Figure 338: Lifecycle CO2 equivalent emissions of electricity generation methods
  • Figure 339: Average energy mix of China, USA and EU
  • Figure 340: CO2 equivalent emissions of manufacturing a NCM111 battery pack
  • Figure 341: CO2 equivalent emissions of manufacturing LFP, NCM, NCA batteries
  • Figure 342: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions of lithium-ion battery raw materials (NCM case)
  • Figure 343: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions of producing NCM cathode
  • Figure 344: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions of producing BEV (best case) with 50 kWh battery pack
  • Figure 345: Breakdown of CO2 equivalent emissions of producing BEV (base case) with 50 kWh battery pack
  • Figure 346: Outlook for CO2 equivalent emissions of producing EV lithium-ion batteries in China, 2014-2029
  • Figure 347: Outlook for CO2 equivalent emissions of producing EV lithium-ion batteries in EU, 2018-2029
  • Figure 348: Outlook for CO2 equivalent emissions of producing EV lithium-ion batteries in the USA, 2015-2029

"The supply of the raw and refined materials needed for the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries has become as strategic as oil supplies, changing the landscape for the automotive, energy and electronics industries and their supply chains globally"

Battery growth

Lithium-ion batteries enabled the consumer electronics industry to become portable and lightweight back in the 1990's. Since 2010, lithium-ion batteries are enabling a whole new revolution in the transport and energy sectors, with governments, automakers, utilities, chemical companies and governments ramping up investment plans to have a place in the clean transport and energy landscapes. To meet expected battery demand by the end of the decade, battery cell makers are constructing additional manufacturing capacity. Major battery producers plan to invest over US$150Bn in expanding manufacturing capacity over the next 10 years in China, the USA and Europe. This is expected to increase annual battery capacity to over 2TWh by the end of the decade, almost 1TWh more than in the previous Roskill 3rd Edition of the Lithium-ion Batteries report. To meet such production, the upstream supply chain is responding accordingly with new manufacturing plants dedicated to precursors, cathodes, anodes, separators and electrolytes, especially outside Asia.

Rise of automotive applications

With almost 80% of future car sales falling under jurisdictions with CO2 and fuel-efficiency regulations, the auto industry is undergoing a complete restructuring in both powertrain technology and manufacturing processes to accommodate EV (Electric Vehicle) manufacturing. Additional costs arising from the integration of lithium-ion batteries into the car powertrain are encouraging auto OEMs to build dedicated manufacturing platforms to reduce costs and improve ease of assembly. Additionally, governments are subsidizing new manufacturing facilities in Europe and the USA to prevent job losses in a rapidly evolving auto industry. Roskill's 4th Edition of the Lithium-ion Batteries report covers auto OEM EV production plans by plant to help incumbents in the supply chain to plan future commercial relationships accordingly.

Changes in battery components

Lithium-ion batteries are a complicated assemblage of materials, with metal and mineral use highest in the active cathode material, active anode material, collectors and cell hardware parts. Chemicals and plastics are more intensively used in binders, solvents, electrolytes (salts and solutions) and separators. However, a whole new paradigm of electrolyte additives and cathode coatings are expected to become the key differentiators in the battery industry. They provide the stability required by new and complex cell chemistries demanded in automotive applications.

The increased size, capacity, power, longevity and safety requirements from automotive applications compared to other end-uses has resulted in a shift in the battery materials required, most notably in cathode materials. The increase demands on nickel-cobalt-aluminium (NCA) and nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM) in automotive applications has seen chemistries shift to higher nickel ratios, such as NCM 6:2:2 and NCM 8:1:1, increasing energy density at the expense of some cycle life and increased cost for battery management systems. Similarly, anode materials have also evolved to maximise battery performance and longevity with increasing amounts of silicon doping.

Raw material requirements

As demand for lithium-ion batteries continues to grow, the strain placed upon the raw material supply chain is expected to be significant. The wide range of raw materials required including lithium, cobalt, nickel sulphate, copper, aluminium and graphite, and changes to supply chains are inevitable.

‘The 4th Edition of the Lithium-ion Batteries report’ draws upon Roskill's more than 50 years of experience in analysing metal and mineral markets, including major battery raw material markets, along with our in-house automotive and lithium-ion battery models.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • Who are the main producers of intermediate battery products?
  • How might new uses impact raw material requirements?
  • How will government and industry regulation impact the lithium-ion industry?
  • What is the value chain for battery raw materials?
  • Why do raw material requirements differ depending on battery use?
  • How will supply and demand develop?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Highlights of this report
    • 1.1.1. Markets for Li-ion batteries
    • 1.1.2. Supply of Li-ion batteries
    • 1.1.3. Raw materials demand
    • 1.1.4. Cost of production
    • 1.1.5. Outlook for Li-ion batteries
    • 1.1.6. The upside for the industry
  • 1.2. Covid-19 impact assessment on EV outlook
    • 1.2.1. Introduction
    • 1.2.2. Methodology
      • 1.2.2.1. China's case as a proxy to estimate global impact
      • 1.2.2.2. An already weak automotive market
      • 1.2.2.3. Assumptions
    • 1.2.3. Short-term scenarios: months to December 2020
    • 1.2.4. Long-term scenarios: impact beyond 2020
    • 1.2.5. Impact on the battery industry
    • 1.2.6. Key trends to follow during & after the Covid-19 crisis

2. Lithium-ion battery flowchart

3. Supply of lithium-ion batteries in 2019

  • 3.1. Introduction to the battery industry
  • 3.2. Production of large-sized lithium-ion cells
    • 3.2.1. Introduction
    • 3.2.2. Complications to manufacture large-sized cells
    • 3.2.3. Market leaders by capacity
    • 3.2.4. Geographic analysis
    • 3.2.5. Gigafactories: a new manufacturing paradigm
      • 3.2.5.1. Capacity
      • 3.2.5.2. Economies of scale, modular design and construction time
      • 3.2.5.3. Total cost of Gigafactories
      • 3.2.5.4. Cost breakdown of Gigafactory's building and equipment
      • 3.2.5.5. Private and public cumulative investments
      • 3.2.5.6. Industrial policy support
  • 3.3. Production of small-sized lithium-ion cells
  • 3.4. Production of cathode materials
  • 3.5. Production of anode materials
  • 3.6. Production of separators
  • 3.7. Production of electrolyte
    • 3.7.1. Electrolyte salts producers
    • 3.7.2. Electrolyte solutions producers
  • 3.8. Production of electro-deposited foil/collectors
    • 3.8.1. Copper collector companies
    • 3.8.2. Aluminium collector companies

4. Markets for lithium-ion batteries

  • 4.1. End-use of lithium-ion batteries by application
    • 4.1.1. Competing technologies
    • 4.1.2. Li-ion batteries in portable electronics
    • 4.1.3. Li-ion batteries in power applications
    • 4.1.4. Li-ion batteries in motive applications
    • 4.1.5. Li-ion batteries in ESS
    • 4.1.6. Li-ion batteries in automotive uses
  • 4.2. End-use of lithium-ion batteries by region
    • 4.2.1. Li-ion batteries in portable electronics by region
    • 4.2.2. Li-ion batteries in power applications by region
    • 4.2.3. Li-ion batteries in motive applications by region
    • 4.2.4. Li-ion batteries in ESS by region
    • 4.2.5. Li-ion batteries in automotive by region
  • 4.3. Use of lithium-ion batteries in the value chain

5. Raw material demand in lithium-ion batteries

  • 5.1. Aluminium
    • 5.1.1. Aluminium in the Li-ion battery industry
    • 5.1.2. Aluminium supply and demand
    • 5.1.3. Aluminium prices
  • 5.2. Cobalt
    • 5.2.1. Cobalt industry structure
    • 5.2.2. Cobalt in the Li-ion battery industry
    • 5.2.3. Cobalt supply and demand
    • 5.2.4. Cobalt prices
  • 5.3. Copper
    • 5.3.1. Copper in the Li-ion battery industry
    • 5.3.2. Copper supply and demand
    • 5.3.3. Copper prices
  • 5.4. Graphite
    • 5.4.1. Graphite in the Li-ion battery industry
    • 5.4.2. Graphite supply and demand
    • 5.4.3. Graphite prices
  • 5.5. Lithium
    • 5.5.1. Lithium in the Li-ion battery industry
    • 5.5.2. Lithium supply and demand
    • 5.5.3. Lithium prices
  • 5.6. Manganese
    • 5.6.1. Consumption of manganese in Li-ion batteries
    • 5.6.2. Manganese metal supply and demand
    • 5.6.3. Manganese metal prices
    • 5.6.4. Manganese sulphate supply and demand
    • 5.6.5. Manganese sulphate prices
  • 5.7. Nickel
    • 5.7.1. Nickel supply and demand
    • 5.7.2. Nickel prices

6. Costs, value and margins

  • 6.1. Li-ion cell cost structure
    • 6.1.1. Cell cost structure
    • 6.1.2. Cathode manufacture
    • 6.1.3. Anode manufacture
    • 6.1.4. Electrolyte manufacture
    • 6.1.5. Separator manufacture
    • 6.1.6. Ancillary materials
  • 6.2. EV Pack manufacture
  • 6.3. Cell manufacturing costs at Gigafactories
    • 6.3.1. Cost breakdown of cell manufacturing
  • 6.4. Outlook for costs
    • 6.4.1. Outlook for raw materials
    • 6.4.2. Outlook for cell costs
    • 6.4.3. Outlook for pack costs

7. Outlook for lithium-ion batteries

  • 7.1. Outlook for market development
    • 7.1.1. Outlook for portable electronics applications
    • 7.1.2. Outlook for power applications
    • 7.1.3. Outlook for motive applications
    • 7.1.4. Outlook for ESS applications
    • 7.1.5. Outlook for automotive applications
  • 7.2. Outlook for supply in the battery supply chain
    • 7.2.1. Outlook for large cell production
      • 7.2.1.1. Introduction
      • 7.2.1.2. Market leaders by capacity
      • 7.2.1.3. Geographic analysis
      • 7.2.1.4. Strategic trends
    • 7.2.2. Outlook for small-sized cell production
    • 7.2.3. Outlook for cathode manufacturing
      • 7.2.3.1. LFP cathode competitive landscape
      • 7.2.3.2. NCM cathode competitive landscape
      • 7.2.3.3. NCA cathode competitive landscape
      • 7.2.3.4. LMO cathode competitive landscape
      • 7.2.3.5. LCO cathode competitive landscape
    • 7.2.4. Outlook for anode manufacturing
    • 7.2.5. Outlook for separator manufacturing
    • 7.2.6. Outlook for electrolyte manufacturing
      • 7.2.6.1. Outlook for electrolyte salts manufacturing
      • 7.2.6.2. Outlook for electrolyte solutions manufacturing
    • 7.2.7. Outlook for collector foil manufacturing
  • 7.3. Outlook for market balance

8. Lithium-ion battery technology

  • 8.1. Li-ion batteries construction
    • 8.1.1. Anatomy of a Li-ion battery cell: an outline
    • 8.1.2. Battery cell formats
    • 8.1.3. Battery modules and packs
  • 8.2. Cathode chemistries
    • 8.2.1. Overview of main chemistries
    • 8.2.2. Comparison of physical properties
    • 8.2.3. High-nickel cathodes: complications ahead
      • 8.2.3.1. Background
      • 8.2.3.2. Manufacturing and end-use reality in 2019
    • 8.2.4. Single crystal cathodes as a solution
  • 8.3. Anode materials
  • 8.4. Collector materials
  • 8.5. Electrolytes
    • 8.5.1. Electrolyte additives
  • 8.6. Separator Materials
    • 8.6.1. What is a separator?
    • 8.6.2. Manufacturing of separators
    • 8.6.3. Preference for dry or wet process separators
    • 8.6.4. Advanced separators
  • 8.7. Manufacturing processes and the value chain
    • 8.7.1. Raw materials to precursor and part processed products
    • 8.7.2. From raw material and part processed products to finished cell material
    • 8.7.3. From finished cell material to assembled cell
    • 8.7.4. From assembled cell to pack and on to customers
  • 8.8. Solid-state batteries
    • 8.8.1. Background of solid-state batteries
    • 8.8.2. Introduction to solid-state batteries
    • 8.8.3. Technology approach
      • 8.8.3.1. Advantages of solid-state electrolytes
      • 8.8.3.2. Challenges for solid-state electrolytes
      • 8.8.3.3. Types of solid-state electrolytes
    • 8.8.4. Commercial approach

9. Portable electronics applications for lithium-ion batteries

  • 9.1. Applications for portable electronics
  • 9.2. Competing technologies in portable electronics
  • 9.3. Cathode chemistries in portable electronics Li-ion batteries
  • 9.4. Market trends in portable electronics
  • 9.5. Outlook for Li-ion batteries in portable electronics

10. Power applications for lithium-ion batteries

  • 10.1. Applications for power devices
  • 10.2. Competing technologies in power applications
  • 10.3. Market trends in power
  • 10.4. Outlook for Li-ion batteries in power

11. Motive applications for lithium-ion batteries

  • 11.1. Applications for motive devices
  • 11.2. Competing technologies in motive
  • 11.3. Market trends in motive
  • 11.4. Outlook for Li-ion batteries in motive

12. Energy storage applications for lithium-ion batteries

  • 12.1. Introduction to the ESS market
  • 12.2. Competing ESS technologies
    • 12.2.1. ESS technologies and their definitions
    • 12.2.2. Choice among ESS technologies
  • 12.3. Energy applications of ESS devices
  • 12.4. Market for electro-chemical (and Li-ion) ESS
  • 12.5. Outlook for electro-chemical ESS
    • 12.5.1. Methodology and outlook
    • 12.5.2. Outlook by ESS technology
    • 12.5.3. Outlook by region

13. Automotive applications for lithium-ion batteries

  • 13.1. Types of electrical vehicles
    • 13.1.1. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
    • 13.1.2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
    • 13.1.3. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
    • 13.1.4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)
  • 13.2. Market outlook in the automotive industry
    • 13.2.1. Sales trends in the automotive market
    • 13.2.2. Impact of on-demand or shared driving on automotive sales
    • 13.2.3. Automotive competitive landscape
  • 13.3. Market outlook the electric vehicle industry
    • 13.3.1. Introduction to transport electrification
    • 13.3.2. Methodology to EV modelling
    • 13.3.3. Sales trends in the market for xEV
    • 13.3.4. Sales trends in the market of passenger xEV
    • 13.3.5. Sales trends in the market for commercial xEV
  • 13.4. Electric vehicle competitive landscape
    • 13.4.1. Automaker plans
      • 13.4.1.1. New EV model line-up
    • 13.4.2. The costs challenge of EV manufacturing
    • 13.4.3. Dedicated EV manufacturing platforms
    • 13.4.4. Automotive OEM EV market shares to 2029
  • 13.5. EV Regulatory landscape
    • 13.5.1. Road transport emissions
    • 13.5.2. Demand-side incentives
    • 13.5.3. Supply-side incentives
    • 13.5.4. Bans on ICE vehicles
  • 13.6. Battery market outlook for electric vehicles
    • 13.6.1. Global capacity
    • 13.6.2. Weighted average battery capacity by e-powertrain and vehicle segment
    • 13.6.3. Weighted average battery capacity by region/country
    • 13.6.4. Battery capacity demanded by automotive OEM
  • 13.7. Cathode trends in automotive batteries
    • 13.7.1. Cathode chemistries
    • 13.7.2. Choice of cathode chemistry
    • 13.7.3. Market shares by cathode chemistry
    • 13.7.4. Cathode costs in EV battery packs
  • 13.8. Anode trends
    • 13.8.1. Anode types
      • 13.8.1.1. Carbon-based anodes
      • 13.8.1.2. Solid state: Lithium anodes
      • 13.8.1.3. LTO anodes

14. Forecast recycling and secondary supply of batteries

  • 14.1. Li-ion recycling overview
  • 14.2. The Li-ion recycling process
    • 14.2.1. Sorting
    • 14.2.2. Pre-treatment
    • 14.2.3. Secondary treatment and its technologies
  • 14.3. Cathode-to-cathode recycling
  • 14.4. Cost of recycling
    • 14.4.1. Logistic costs
    • 14.4.2. Cost of the recycling operation
    • 14.4.3. Paths to profitability
  • 14.5. Market landscape
    • 14.5.1. General overview
    • 14.5.2. Market participants
  • 14.6. Recycling forecast in Li-ion cells

15. Sustainability

  • 15.1. Evolution of a sustainable mindset in EV industry
  • 15.2. Life cycle analysis comparison of BEV and ICE vehicle
    • 15.2.1. Life cycle analysis
    • 15.2.2. Life cycle analysis comparison of BEV and ICE vehicle
  • 15.3. CO2. footprint of the lithium-ion battery value chain
  • 15.4. CO2. footprint of the lithium-ion battery raw materials
  • 15.5. Options for reducing CO2 footprint
  • 15.6. Outlook for CO2 emissions from EV battery production

16. Company profiles

  • 16.1. Cell Manufacturers
    • 16.1.1. CATL
    • 16.1.2. Guoxuan
    • 16.1.3. BYD
    • 16.1.4. Farasis
    • 16.1.5. SVOLT
    • 16.1.6. LG Chem
    • 16.1.7. Panasonic
    • 16.1.8. Lishen
    • 16.1.9. Samsung SDI
    • 16.1.10. SK Innovation
    • 16.1.11. AESC
    • 16.1.12. CALB
    • 16.1.13. BAK
    • 16.1.14. Coslight
    • 16.1.15. Beijing Guoneng (National) Battery Technology
    • 16.1.16. Microvast
  • 16.2. Anode Manufacturers
    • 16.2.1. BTR New Energy Materials
    • 16.2.2. Hitachi
    • 16.2.3. Jiangxi Zichen Technology
    • 16.2.4. Shanshan Group
    • 16.2.5. Shenzhen Sinuo Industrial Development
    • 16.2.6. POSCO
  • 16.3. Cathode Manufacturers
    • 16.3.1. B&M
    • 16.3.2. BASF
    • 16.3.3. Changyuan Lico
    • 16.3.4. Dynanonic
    • 16.3.5. Easpring
    • 16.3.6. Ecopro
    • 16.3.7. L&F
    • 16.3.8. Nichia Corp
    • 16.3.9. Ningbo Ronbay (Ningbo Jinhe)
    • 16.3.10. Sumitomo Metal Mining
    • 16.3.11. Umicore
    • 16.3.12. Xiamen Tungsten
    • 16.3.13. ZEC (Zhenhua E-Chem)
  • 16.4. Electrolyte Manufacturers
    • 16.4.1. Central Glass
    • 16.4.2. Do-Fluoride Chemicals
    • 16.4.3. Foosung
    • 16.4.4. Jiangsu Bicon Pharmaceutical (formerly Jiangsu Jiujiujiu)
    • 16.4.5. Kanto Denka Kogyo
    • 16.4.6. Mitsubishi Chemical
    • 16.4.7. Morita Chemical
    • 16.4.8. PANAX-Etec
    • 16.4.9. Shanshan Group
    • 16.4.10. Shenzhen Capchem
    • 16.4.11. Soulbrain
    • 16.4.12. Tinci Materials
    • 16.4.13. Tonze Electric
    • 16.4.14. UBE
    • 16.4.15. Zhangjiagang Guotai-Huarong
  • 16.5. Separator producers
    • 16.5.1. Asahi Kasei
    • 16.5.2. SEMCORP
  • 16.6. Electro-deposited copper foil producers
    • 16.6.1. Nan Ya Plastics
    • 16.6.2. Kingboard Copper Foil
    • 16.6.3. Lingbao Wason
    • 16.6.4. Furukawa Electric

17. Macro economic outlook

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