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V2X(Vehicle to Everything) 통신 에코시스템 : 기회, 과제, 전략, 예측(2019-2030년) - 중국 특별판

The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts - China Special Edition

리서치사 SNS Telecom & IT
발행일 2019년 03월 상품 코드 812756
페이지 정보 영문 871 Pages
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V2X(Vehicle to Everything) 통신 에코시스템 : 기회, 과제, 전략, 예측(2019-2030년) - 중국 특별판 The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts - China Special Edition
발행일 : 2019년 03월 페이지 정보 : 영문 871 Pages

802.11p/DSRC vs C-V2X의 논의 및 법규제상 불확실성 등의 과제는 남아 있으나, 세계의 V2X 통신기술에 대한 투자액은 2019-2022년간 170% 이상의 CAGR(연간 복합 성장률)로 추이하며, 2022년말에는 약 12억 달러의 시장 규모, V2X 탑재차 대수에서는 약 600만 대에 달할 것으로 예측됩니다.

V2X(Vehicle to Everything) 통신기술 시장을 조사했으며, V2X 통신기술의 개요, 아키텍처 & 엘리먼트, 주요 용도/도입 부문, 비지니스 모델, 시장 성장에 대한 각종 영향요인 분석, 주요 실현 기술, 도입 시나리오·이용 사례, V2X 도입의 사례 연구, 주요 사업자에 의한 대처, 관련 규격의 표준화·법규제·공동 이니셔티브의 동향, 향후 로드맵과 밸류체인, 주요 참여 사업자의 개요, 시장 규모의 추이와 예측, 향후 전망·각종 제안 등을 정리하여 전해드립니다.

중국 특별판에는 중국에서의 V2X 통신기술의 투자 예측을 상세히 제시한 EXCEL 데이터시트가 특별 첨부됩니다.

제1장 서론

제2장 V2X 통신 : 개요

  • V2X 통신이란?
  • V2X 통신의 주요 특징
    • V2X 통신의 종류
    • 전송 모드
    • V2X 메시지 세트 & 서비스 능력
  • V2X 통신용 무선 기술
    • IEEE 802.11p/DSRC
    • C-V2X(셀룰러 V2X)
  • V2X 아키텍처·주요 엘리먼트
    • 차량용 OBU(On-Board Units)
    • 비차량용 V2X 대응 디바이스
    • RSU(Roadside Units)
    • V2X 애플리케이션
    • V2X 컨트롤 기능 & 셀룰러 네트워크 전용 엘리먼트
    • V2X 보안 서브시스템
  • 주요 도입 부문
  • V2X 비지니스 모델
    • B2C
    • B2B
    • B2B2X
  • 시장 성장 촉진요인
  • 시장 장벽

제3장 V2X 통신의 주요 실현 기술

  • 레거시 DSRC/ITS 기술
    • CEN DSRC/MDR-DSRC/TTT-DSRC
    • 915 MHz/UHF RFID
    • 액티브 DSRC 시스템
    • HDR DSRC
    • ITS 스폿/ETC 2.0
    • VICS
  • IEEE 802.11p 기반 DSRC 시스템
    • WAVE
    • ITS-G5/C-ITS
    • ITS Connect/ARIB STD-T109
    • 기타
  • C-V2X 기술
    • LTE-V2X
    • 5G NR-V2X
    • C-V2X 통신용 인터페이스
  • 기타 무선 기술
  • 보완 기술·컨셉
    • 온보드 센서·ADAS
    • 차량 안전 시스템
    • 기타 차량내 시스템
    • GNSS·정밀 측위
    • 빅데이터·첨단 애널리틱스
    • AI·기계학습
    • 클라우드 컴퓨팅
    • 엣지 컴퓨팅
    • 네트워크 슬라이싱

제4장 V2X 도입 시나리오·이용 사례

  • 도로 안전
  • 교통 관리·최적화
  • 내비게이션 & 여행자/운전자 정보
  • 공공 운송
  • 상용차 플릿·노변 용도
  • 긴급 서비스 & 공공안전
  • 환경·지속가능성
  • 노상 기후 관리
  • 부가가치 서비스
  • 자율주행·첨단 용도

제5장 V2X 도입의 사례 연구

  • AACVTE(Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment)
  • AURORA
  • BMW Group
  • CDOT(Colorado Department of Transportation) RoadX
  • 중국 우시시의 LTE-V2X 프로젝트
  • Daimler
  • Ford Motor Company
  • GM(General Motors)
  • Groupe PSA
  • Groupe Renault
  • HKT/PCCW
  • InterCor(Interoperable Corridors)
  • 호주 Ipswich Connected Vehicle Pilot
  • JLR(Jaguar Land Rover)
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • SAIC Motor Corporation
  • Telstra
  • Toyota Motor Corporation
  • USDOT
  • Vodafone Group
  • Volkswagen Group
  • Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks 등

제6장 V2X 대역 가용성·할당·이용 : 지역별

제7장 표준화·법규제·공동 이니셔티브

제8장 향후 로드맵 & 밸류체인

제9장 주요 에코시스템 참여 사업자

제10장 시장 규모·예측

  • 세계 V2X 통신기술 시장의 전망
  • 매출 예측 : V2X 단말기기
    • C-V2X
    • LTE-V2X
    • 5G-NR V2X
    • IEEE 802.11p
    • IEEE 802.11p-2010
    • IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 출하량·매출 예측 : V2X OBU
    • C-V2X
    • LTE-V2X
    • 5G-NR V2X
    • IEEE 802.11p
    • IEEE 802.11p-2010
    • IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 출하량·매출 예측 : V2X RSU
    • C-V2X
    • LTE-V2X
    • 5G-NR V2X
    • IEEE 802.11p
    • IEEE 802.11p-2010
    • IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 매출 예측 : V2X 애플리케이션
  • 매출 예측 : V2X 백엔드 네트워크 엘리먼트
  • 매출 예측 : V2X 보안
  • 세계 V2X 탑재차·RSU의 인스톨 기반
  • 지역별 전망

제11장 결론·전략적 제안

제12장 전문가의 견해

KSA 19.04.08

Commonly referred to as V2X, vehicle-to-everything communications technology allows vehicles to directly communicate with each other, roadside infrastructure, and other road users to deliver an array of benefits in the form of road safety, traffic efficiency, smart mobility, environmental sustainability, and driver convenience. In addition, V2X is also helping pave the way for fully autonomous driving through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability which allows vehicles to detect potential hazards, traffic, and road conditions from longer distances and sooner than other in-vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging).

Although legacy V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) technologies are currently in operational use worldwide for ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) and relatively simple V2I applications, advanced V2X systems - capable of supporting V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I and other forms of V2X communications - are beginning to gain broad commercial acceptance with two competing technologies vying for the attention of automakers and regulators: the commercially mature IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) standard, and the relatively new 3GPP-defined C-V2X (Cellular V2X) technology which has a forward evolutionary path towards 5G.

With an initial focus on road safety and traffic efficiency applications, Toyota and GM (General Motors) have already equipped some of their vehicle models with IEEE 802.11p-based V2X technology in Japan and North America. Among other commercial commitments, Volkswagen will begin deploying IEEE 802.11p on volume models in Europe starting from 2019, while Geely and Ford plan to integrate C-V2X in their new vehicles by 2021 and 2022 respectively. It is also worth nothing that a number of luxury automakers - including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen's subsidiary Audi, and Volvo Cars - already deliver certain V2X-type applications through wide-area cellular connectivity and supporting infrastructure such as appropriately equipped roadwork trailers.

Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022, V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.

The “V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the V2X ecosystem including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, business models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, V2X deployment case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents market size forecasts from 2019 till 2030. The forecasts cover four submarkets, two air interface technologies, 10 application categories and five regions.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

This special edition of the report also features an additional Excel datasheet detailing forecasts for V2X communications technology investments in China.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • 1.1. Executive Summary
  • 1.2. Topics Covered
  • 1.3. Forecast Segmentation
  • 1.4. Key Questions Answered
  • 1.5. Key Findings
  • 1.6. Methodology
  • 1.7. Target Audience
  • 1.8. Companies & Organizations Mentioned

Chapter 2: An Overview of V2X Communications

  • 2.1. What is V2X Communications?
  • 2.2. Key Characteristics of V2X Communications
    • 2.2.1. Types of V2X Communications
      • 2.2.1.1. V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle)
      • 2.2.1.2. V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure)
      • 2.2.1.3. V2P/V2D (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian/Device)
      • 2.2.1.4. V2M (Vehicle-to-Motorcycle)
      • 2.2.1.5. V2N (Vehicle-to-Network)
      • 2.2.1.6. V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid), V2H (Vehicle-to-Home) & Adjacent-Concepts
    • 2.2.2. Transmission Modes
      • 2.2.2.1. Direct
      • 2.2.2.2. Multi-Hop
      • 2.2.2.3. Network-Assisted
    • 2.2.3. V2X Message Sets & Service Capabilities
      • 2.2.3.1. Periodic Awareness: CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message)/BSM (Basic Safety Message) Part 1
      • 2.2.3.2. Event Triggered Safety Alerts: DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)/BSM Part 2
      • 2.2.3.3. CPM (Collective Perception Message)
      • 2.2.3.4. MCM (Maneuver Coordination Message)
      • 2.2.3.5. SPaT (Signal Phase & Timing)
      • 2.2.3.6. MAP (Map Data Message)
      • 2.2.3.7. GNSS Correction
      • 2.2.3.8. SSM/SRM (Signal Status & Request Messages)
      • 2.2.3.9. PSM (Personal Safety Message)
      • 2.2.3.10. IVIM (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Information Message), TIM/RSM (Traveler Information/Road Safety Message)
      • 2.2.3.11. BIM (Basic Information/Infrastructure Message)
      • 2.2.3.12. MCDM (Multimedia Content Dissemination Message)
      • 2.2.3.13. Video & Sensor Information Exchange
      • 2.2.3.14. Standard Voice & Data Services
      • 2.2.3.15. PVD (Probe Vehicle Data)
      • 2.2.3.16. PDM (Probe Data Management)
      • 2.2.3.17. Other V2X-Specific Message Types
  • 2.3. Wireless Technologies for V2X Communications
  • 2.3.1. IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications)
  • 2.3.2. C-V2X (Cellular V2X)
  • 2.4. V2X Architecture & Key Elements
    • 2.4.1. Vehicular OBUs (On-Board Units)
    • 2.4.2. Non-Vehicular V2X-Capable Devices
    • 2.4.3. RSUs (Roadside Units)
    • 2.4.4. V2X Applications
      • 2.4.4.1. V2X Application Software
      • 2.4.4.2. V2X Middleware & Application Server
    • 2.4.5. V2X Control Function & Cellular Network-Specific Elements
    • 2.4.6. V2X Security Subsystem
  • 2.5. Key Applications Areas
    • 2.5.1. Road Safety
    • 2.5.2. Traffic Management & Optimization
    • 2.5.3. Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
    • 2.5.4. Transit & Public Transport
    • 2.5.5. Commercial Vehicle Operations
    • 2.5.6. Emergency Services & Public Safety
    • 2.5.7. Environmental Sustainability
    • 2.5.8. Road Weather Management
    • 2.5.9. Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
    • 2.5.10. Value-Added Services
  • 2.6. V2X Business Models
    • 2.6.1. B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Premium Charge for Non-Safety Critical Applications
    • 2.6.2. B2B (Business-to-Business): V2X Capabilities for Enterprise Vehicle Fleets, Road Operators & Transportation Agencies
    • 2.6.3. B2B2X (Business-to-Business-to-Consumer/Business): Monetization Through Intermediaries
  • 2.7. Market Drivers
    • 2.7.1. Safety: Towards a Zero-Accident Environment
    • 2.7.2. Traffic Efficiency: Minimizing Congestion & Streamlining Traffic Flow
    • 2.7.3. Lessening the Environmental Impact of Transportation
    • 2.7.4. Facilitating the Adoption of Smart Mobility Applications
    • 2.7.5. Enabling Autonomous & Convenient Driving
    • 2.7.6. Economic & Societal Benefits
    • 2.7.7. Government-Led Efforts to Encourage V2X Adoption
    • 2.7.8. Maturation of Enabling Wireless Technologies
  • 2.8. Market Barriers
    • 2.8.1. Lack of Critical Mass of V2X Equipped Vehicles
    • 2.8.2. V2X Mandate Delays & Regulatory Uncertainties
    • 2.8.3. The IEEE 802.11p vs. C-V2X Debate
    • 2.8.4. Spectrum Sharing & Harmonization
    • 2.8.5. Security & Privacy Concerns
    • 2.8.6. Technical Complexity of Implementation
    • 2.8.7. Business Model Challenges
    • 2.8.8. Public Acceptance

Chapter 3: Key Enabling Technologies for V2X Communications

  • 3.1. Legacy DSRC/ITS Technologies
    • 3.1.1. CEN DSRC/MDR-DSRC/TTT-DSRC
    • 3.1.2. 915 MHz/UHF RFID
    • 3.1.3. Active DSRC Systems
    • 3.1.4. HDR DSRC
    • 3.1.5. ITS Spot/ETC 2.0
    • 3.1.6. VICS (Vehicle Information and Communications System)
  • 3.2. IEEE 802.11p-Based DSRC Systems
    • 3.2.1. WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment)
    • 3.2.2. ITS-G5/C-ITS
    • 3.2.3. ITS Connect/ARIB STD-T109
    • 3.2.4. Other Variants
  • 3.3. C-V2X Technology
    • 3.3.1. LTE-V2X
    • 3.3.2. 5G NR-V2X
    • 3.3.3. Interfaces for C-V2X Communications
      • 3.3.3.1. PC5/Sidelink for Direct V2V, V2I & V2P Communications
        • 3.3.3.1.1. Network-Coordinated Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 3
        • 3.3.3.1.2. Distributed Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 4
      • 3.3.3.2. LTE/NR-Uu for V2N Communications
  • 3.4. Other Wireless Technologies
  • 3.5. Complementary Technologies & Concepts
    • 3.5.1. On-Board Sensors & ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems)
      • 3.5.1.1. Sensing Capabilities for Safety & Awareness
      • 3.5.1.2. Enabling Sophisticated ADAS Applications
    • 3.5.2. Vehicle Safety Systems
      • 3.5.2.1. Active Safety Systems
      • 3.5.2.2. Passive Safety & Countermeasures
    • 3.5.3. Other In-Vehicle Systems
      • 3.5.3.1. HMI (Human Machine Interface)/Display Systems
      • 3.5.3.2. Augmented Reality & HUDs (Head-Up-Displays)
    • 3.5.4. GNSS & Precise Positioning
      • 3.5.4.1. Enabling Lane-Level Accuracy for V2X Applications
    • 3.5.5. Big Data & Advanced Analytics
      • 3.5.5.1. Streaming & Processing Massive Volumes of V2X-Generated Data
      • 3.5.5.2. The Significance of Advanced Analytics
    • 3.5.6. Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning
      • 3.5.6.1. Self-Learning for Complex V2X Applications
      • 3.5.6.2. Powering Fully-Autonomous Vehicles
    • 3.5.7. Cloud Computing
      • 3.5.7.1. Centralized Processing for Delay-Tolerant & Wide-Area Applications
    • 3.5.8. Edge Computing
      • 3.5.8.1. Delivering Localized Processing Power for Latency-Sensitive V2X Applications
    • 3.5.9. Network Slicing
      • 3.5.9.1. Flexible Allocation of C-V2X Resources over Mobile Networks

Chapter 4: V2X Application Scenarios & Use Cases

  • 4.1. Road Safety Applications
    • 4.1.1. V2V Safety Applications
      • 4.1.1.1. Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning
        • 4.1.1.1.1. Forward Collision Warning
        • 4.1.1.1.2. Frontal/Head-On Collision Warning
      • 4.1.1.2. Side Collision Risk Warning
      • 4.1.1.3. Intersection Collision Risk Warning
      • 4.1.1.4. Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
      • 4.1.1.5. Intersection Movement Assistance
      • 4.1.1.6. Intersection Priority Management
      • 4.1.1.7. Blind Spot Warning
      • 4.1.1.8. Lane Change Assistance
      • 4.1.1.9. Highway Merge Assistance
      • 4.1.1.10. Do Not Pass Warning
      • 4.1.1.11. Left/Right Turn Assistance
      • 4.1.1.12. Pre-Crash Sensing & Mitigation
      • 4.1.1.13. Post-Crash Warning
      • 4.1.1.14. Queue Warning
      • 4.1.1.15. Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning
      • 4.1.1.16. Vehicle Breakdown Warning
      • 4.1.1.17. Control Loss Warning
      • 4.1.1.18. Safety System Malfunction Warning
      • 4.1.1.19. Wrong Way Driving Warning
      • 4.1.1.20. Drowsy or Distracted Driver Warning
      • 4.1.1.21. Overtaking Vehicle Warning
      • 4.1.1.22. Tailgating Advisory
      • 4.1.1.23. Transit Vehicle at Station/Stop Warnings
      • 4.1.1.24. Vehicle Turning in Front of a Transit Vehicle Warning
      • 4.1.1.25. V2V Situational Awareness
      • 4.1.1.26. Decentralized Floating Vehicle Data
      • 4.1.1.27. V2V Road Condition & Feature Notification
      • 4.1.1.28. V2V Hazardous Location Alert
      • 4.1.1.29. Cooperative Glare Reduction
      • 4.1.1.30. Virtual Tow
    • 4.1.2. V2I Safety Applications
      • 4.1.2.1. In-Vehicle Signage, Speed Limits & Safety Information
      • 4.1.2.2. Infrastructure-Assisted Collision Risk Warning
      • 4.1.2.3. V2I-Based Emergency Brake Alert
      • 4.1.2.4. Public Transport & Emergency Vehicle Prioritization
      • 4.1.2.5. Intersection Safety & Management
      • 4.1.2.6. Red Light Violation Warning
      • 4.1.2.7. Railroad Crossing Violation Warning
      • 4.1.2.8. Stop Sign Violation Warning
      • 4.1.2.9. Stop Sign Movement Assistance
      • 4.1.2.10. Blind Merge Warning
      • 4.1.2.11. Exit Ramp Deceleration Warning
      • 4.1.2.12. Wrong Way Entry Warning
      • 4.1.2.13. Work Zone Warning
      • 4.1.2.14. Curve Speed Warning
      • 4.1.2.15. Reduced Speed Zone Warning
      • 4.1.2.16. Lane Closure or Shift Warning
      • 4.1.2.17. Restricted Lane Warnings
      • 4.1.2.18. Oversize Vehicle Warning
      • 4.1.2.19. Low Bridge Warning
      • 4.1.2.20. Low Parking Structure Warning
      • 4.1.2.21. V2I Situational Awareness
      • 4.1.2.22. V2I Road Condition & Feature Notification
      • 4.1.2.23. V2I Hazardous & Accident Prone Location Alert
      • 4.1.2.24. Dynamic Roadside Lighting
      • 4.1.2.25. Adaptive Headlamp Aiming
    • 4.1.3. V2P/V2D, V2M & Other Safety Applications
      • 4.1.3.1. Pedestrian, Cyclist & Other VRU (Vulnerable Road User) Detection
      • 4.1.3.2. VRU Collision Warning
      • 4.1.3.3. Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning
      • 4.1.3.4. Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signal System
      • 4.1.3.5. Transit Pedestrian Indication
      • 4.1.3.6. Work Zone Safety Alerts for Maintenance Personnel
      • 4.1.3.7. Animal Crossing Warning
      • 4.1.3.8. Motorcycle Approach Indication
      • 4.1.3.9. Motorcycle Approach Warning
      • 4.1.3.10. Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning for Motorcyclists
  • 4.2. Traffic Management & Optimization Applications
    • 4.2.1. Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory
    • 4.2.2. Intelligent Traffic Signal Control
    • 4.2.3. Intelligent On-Ramp Metering
    • 4.2.4. Traffic Signal Priority for Designated Vehicles
    • 4.2.5. V2N-Based Traffic Flow Optimization
    • 4.2.6. Adaptive Traffic Jam Avoidance
    • 4.2.7. Dynamic Speed Harmonization
    • 4.2.8. CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control)
    • 4.2.9. Flexible Lane Allocation & Control
    • 4.2.10. ETC (Electronic Toll Collection)/Free-Flow Road Use Charging
    • 4.2.11. Zone Access Control for Urban Areas
    • 4.2.12. Road & Infrastructure Deterioration Diagnosis
    • 4.2.13. Probe Vehicle Data
      • 4.2.13.1. Traffic Operations
      • 4.2.13.2. Road Network Monitoring, Maintenance & Planning
      • 4.2.13.3. Other Transport Agency Applications
  • 4.3. Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Applications
    • 4.3.1. Traffic Information & Recommended Itinerary
    • 4.3.2. Enhanced Route Guidance and Navigation
    • 4.3.3. V2X-Assisted Positioning
    • 4.3.4. Point of Interest Notification
    • 4.3.5. Fueling Information for Conventional, Electric & Alternative Fuel Vehicles
    • 4.3.6. Limited Access Warning & Detour Notification
    • 4.3.7. Work Zone Traveler Information
    • 4.3.8. Enhanced ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems)
    • 4.3.9. Alternative Multi-Modal Transport Information
    • 4.3.10. Smart Parking
    • 4.3.11. Smart Park & Ride
  • 4.4. Transit & Public Transport Applications
    • 4.4.1. Dynamic Public Transport Operations
      • 4.4.1.1. Real-Time Trip Requests
      • 4.4.1.2. Demand-Responsive Scheduling, Dispatching & Routing
    • 4.4.2. Transit Signal Priority
    • 4.4.3. Intermittent Bus Lanes
    • 4.4.4. Protection of Transit Connections
    • 4.4.5. Transit Stop Request
    • 4.4.6. Enhanced ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) Service
    • 4.4.7. Real-Time Ridesharing
    • 4.4.8. Queue Management for Taxi Services
    • 4.4.9. Route Guidance for the Visually Impaired
    • 4.4.10. Mobile Payments for Public Transport
  • 4.5. Commercial Vehicle Fleet & Roadside Applications
    • 4.5.1. V2I-Based Data Collection for Fleet Management
    • 4.5.2. Hazardous Material Cargo Tracking
    • 4.5.3. Electronic Work Diaries
    • 4.5.4. Freight-Specific Travel Information & Dynamic Routing
    • 4.5.5. Drayage Operations Optimization
    • 4.5.6. Container/Chassis Security & Operational Monitoring
    • 4.5.7. Freight Signal Priority
    • 4.5.8. Loading Zone Management
    • 4.5.9. Smart Roadside Applications for Commercial Vehicles
    • 4.5.10. Wireless Roadside Inspections
    • 4.5.11. Smart Truck Parking
    • 4.5.12. Intelligent Speed Compliance
    • 4.5.13. Heavy Vehicle Road Use Monitoring
  • 4.6. Emergency Services & Public Safety Applications
    • 4.6.1. Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning
    • 4.6.2. Emergency Vehicle Preemption
    • 4.6.3. Emergency Incident Traffic Management
      • 4.6.3.1. Incident Scene Pre-Arrival Staging Guidance for Emergency Responders
      • 4.6.3.2. Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers & Workers
      • 4.6.3.3. Emergency Communications & Evacuation
    • 4.6.4. Vehicle-Associated Information Sharing for Emergency Response
    • 4.6.5. Automatic SOS/Crash Notification Relay
    • 4.6.6. Wide-Area Emergency Alerts
    • 4.6.7. Disaster-Related Traveler Information Broadcast
    • 4.6.8. Stolen Vehicle Notification & Tracking
    • 4.6.9. V2X-Assisted Border Management Systems
  • 4.7. Environmental Sustainability Applications
    • 4.7.1. Eco-Traffic Signal Timing
    • 4.7.2. Eco-Traffic Signal Priority
    • 4.7.3. Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections
    • 4.7.4. Eco-Speed Harmonization
    • 4.7.5. Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
    • 4.7.6. Eco-Ramp Metering
    • 4.7.7. Eco-Lanes Management
    • 4.7.8. Low Emissions Zone Management
    • 4.7.9. Dynamic Emissions Pricing
    • 4.7.10. Connected Eco-Driving
    • 4.7.11. Eco-Traveler Information Dissemination
    • 4.7.12. Predictive Eco-Routing
    • 4.7.13. Eco-Integrated Corridor Management
    • 4.7.14. Road Environment Monitoring
  • 4.8. Road Weather Management Applications
    • 4.8.1. V2X-Assisted Road Weather Performance Management
    • 4.8.2. Real-Time Alerts and Advisories
    • 4.8.3. Spot Weather Impact Warning
    • 4.8.4. Road Weather Information for Commercial & Emergency Response Vehicles
    • 4.8.5. Weather Responsive Traffic Management
    • 4.8.6. Enhanced MDSS (Maintenance Decision Support Systems)
    • 4.8.7. Monitoring of Road Maintenance Vehicles & Operations
  • 4.9. Value Added Services
    • 4.9.1. Electronic "Drive-Thru" Payments
    • 4.9.2. Wireless Advertising
    • 4.9.3. Automatic Vehicle-Based Access Control
    • 4.9.4. V2V Instant Messaging
    • 4.9.5. V2I & V2V-Assisted Internet Connectivity
    • 4.9.6. Media/Map Downloads
    • 4.9.7. Vehicle Software Provisioning & Updates
    • 4.9.8. Personal Data Synchronization
    • 4.9.9. Vehicle Caravan Organization
    • 4.9.10. Remote Diagnostics & Maintenance
    • 4.9.11. Rental Car Processing
    • 4.9.12. Insurance & Financial Services
    • 4.9.13. Electric Charging Station Management
    • 4.9.14. Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging
    • 4.9.15. Other Applications
  • 4.10. Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
    • 4.10.1. Semi & Fully-Autonomous Driving
    • 4.10.2. Cooperative Automated Maneuvering
    • 4.10.3. Vehicle Platooning
    • 4.10.4. Coordinated Signaling for Autonomous Vehicles & Platoons
    • 4.10.5. Real-Time HD Mapping & Autonomous Navigation
    • 4.10.6. Extended Sensors for Situational Awareness
    • 4.10.7. See-Through Visibility
    • 4.10.8. Remote/Tele-Operated Driving
    • 4.10.9. Precision Positioning-Assisted Vulnerable Road User Protection
    • 4.10.10. Data Uploads for Autonomous Driving Algorithm Tuning
    • 4.10.11. Connected Powertrain Optimization

Chapter 5: V2X Deployment Case Studies

  • 5.1. AACVTE (Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment): Setting a Standard for the Nationwide Implementation of V2X
    • 5.1.1. Historical Roots: SPMD (Safety Pilot Model Deployment)
    • 5.1.2. Transition from a Model Deployment to an Operational V2X Environment
    • 5.1.3. AACVTE Deployment Status
    • 5.1.4. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.1.5. Key Achievements & Future Plans
  • 5.2. AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed: Promoting Safe, Smart Transportation Through V2X
    • 5.2.1. Supporting Efforts for Safe, Smart Transportation in British Columbia & Canada
    • 5.2.2. AURORA Test Bed Overview
    • 5.2.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.2.4. Future Research Ventures
  • 5.3. BMW Group: Pushing C-V2X Adoption Worldwide
    • 5.3.1. Commitment to C-V2X Technology
    • 5.3.2. Efforts to Urge the Adoption of Technology-Neutral Legislation for V2X Communications
    • 5.3.3. V2X Engagements in Europe & Abroad
    • 5.3.4. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.3.5. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.4. CDOT's (Colorado Department of Transportation) RoadX: Building Colorado's IoR (Internet of Roads) with V2X
    • 5.4.1. RoadX "Connection" Action Area: V2X Development Program
    • 5.4.2. V2X Deployment Status
    • 5.4.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.4.4. Future Plans for Full-Scale Deployment
  • 5.5. City of Wuxi's LTE-V2X Project: Deploying China's First City-Level V2X Implementation
    • 5.5.1. Establishing a City-Level LTE-V2X Demonstration Area
    • 5.5.2. V2X Deployment Status
    • 5.5.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.5.4. Next Steps & Plans for Full-Scale Adoption
  • 5.6. Daimler: Leveraging Cellular Technology for V2X Applications
    • 5.6.1. Daimler's Position on IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X Technologies
    • 5.6.2. Car-to-X Communication via Cellular Radio
    • 5.6.3. V2X Engagements Worldwide
    • 5.6.4. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.6.5. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.7. Ford Motor Company: Fast Tracking C-V2X Technology into Vehicles
    • 5.7.1. Validating C-V2X Technology in Ford Vehicles
    • 5.7.2. V2X Engagements Worldwide
      • 5.7.2.1. United States
      • 5.7.2.2. Europe
      • 5.7.2.3. China
    • 5.7.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.7.4. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.8. GM (General Motors): Commercializing the World's First 5.9 GHz V2X-Equipped Vehicles
    • 5.8.1. Rolling Out Production-Ready Vehicle Models with V2X Capabilities in North America
    • 5.8.2. Key Applications Supported by GM's V2X System
      • 5.8.2.1. V2V Applications
      • 5.8.2.2. Planned Support for V2I, V2P & Other Applications
    • 5.8.3. V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models
    • 5.8.4. Prospects of Commercializing V2X in Other Markets
  • 5.9. Groupe PSA: Pursuing Both IEEE 802.11p & C-V2X Technologies
    • 5.9.1. Technology-Neutral Approach Towards V2X
    • 5.9.2. V2X Engagements Worldwide
      • 5.9.2.1. IEEE 802.11p
      • 5.9.2.2. C-V2X
    • 5.9.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.9.4. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.10. Groupe Renault: Testing V2X Connectivity Under Real-Life Traffic Conditions
    • 5.10.1. Support for ITS-G5/IEEE 802.11p
    • 5.10.2. SCOOP@F Project & Other V2X Engagements
    • 5.10.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.10.4. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.11. HKT/PCCW: Utilizing V2X to Empower Smart & Safe Mobility in Hong Kong
    • 5.11.1. Smart Mobility Consortium: Building a C-V2X Powered Smart & Safe Mobility System
    • 5.11.2. Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
    • 5.11.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.11.4. Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
  • 5.12. InterCor (Interoperable Corridors): Streamlining the Implementation of Cross Border & Interoperable V2X Services
    • 5.12.1. Delivering Interoperable V2X Services Through a Sustainable Network of European C-ITS Corridors
    • 5.12.2. Relationship with the C-Roads Platform
    • 5.12.3. V2X Deployment Overview
      • 5.12.3.1. Dutch Section of the C-ITS Corridor (Netherlands-Germany-Austria)
      • 5.12.3.2. SCOOP@F: French Corridor
      • 5.12.3.3. United Kingdom's A2M2 Connected Corridor
      • 5.12.3.4. Belgium/Flanders C-ITS Initiative
    • 5.12.4. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.12.5. Testfests to Validate Common Specifications
      • 5.12.5.1. ITS-G5 Services
      • 5.12.5.2. GLOSA (Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory) Pre-Testfest
      • 5.12.5.3. PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Security
      • 5.12.5.4. Hybrid ITS-G5/Cellular Communications
      • 5.12.5.5. Cross-Border Interoperability
    • 5.12.6. Next Steps: Project Completion, Harmonized V2X Specifications & Testing of Advanced V2X Applications
  • 5.13. Ipswich Connected Vehicle Pilot: Laying the Technical Foundations for V2X Rollouts in Australia
    • 5.13.1. Preparing for the Arrival of V2X on Queensland Roads
    • 5.13.2. Pilot Planning & Deployment Status
    • 5.13.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.13.4. Plans for On-Road Testing & Next Steps
  • 5.14. JLR (Jaguar Land Rover): Making Journeys Safe, Comfortable & Stress-Free with V2X
    • 5.14.1. Enhancing ADAS Capabilities with V2X for Safe & Comfortable Driving
    • 5.14.2. V2X Engagements in the United Kingdom
    • 5.14.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.14.4. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.15. NTT DoCoMo: Leading the Path Towards Connected Cars & Roads of the Future with V2X
    • 5.15.1. Developing C-V2X Technology to Support Future Mobility Use Cases
    • 5.15.2. Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
    • 5.15.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.15.4. Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
  • 5.16. SAIC Motor Corporation: Powering Intelligent Connected Vehicles with V2X
    • 5.16.1. Advancing the Development of V2X to Facilitate Intelligent Driving
    • 5.16.2. V2X Engagements in China
    • 5.16.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.16.4. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.17. Telstra: Making Australia's Roads Safe, More Efficient & Better-Prepared for Autonomous Driving with V2X
    • 5.17.1. Telstra's V2X Project: Focus on Safety, Traffic Efficiency & Autonomous Driving
    • 5.17.2. Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
    • 5.17.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.17.4. Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
  • 5.18. Toyota Motor Corporation: Bringing V2X to Mass-Market Vehicle Models
    • 5.18.1. ITS Connect: Commercializing the World's First DSRC-Based V2X System in Japan
    • 5.18.2. Key Applications Supported by the ITS Connect System
      • 5.18.2.1. V2V Applications
      • 5.18.2.2. V2I Applications
      • 5.18.2.3. Planned Support for V2P & Other Applications
    • 5.18.3. V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models & RSU Installation in Japan
    • 5.18.4. Future Plans to Introduce V2X-Equipped Vehicles in the United States & Other Countries
  • 5.19. USDOT Connected Vehicle Pilots: Helping V2X Make the Final Leap into Real-World Deployment
    • 5.19.1. NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation) Connected Vehicle Pilot
      • 5.19.1.1. Pilot Deployment Overview
      • 5.19.1.2. Supported V2X Applications
      • 5.19.1.3. Current Status of the Pilot Deployment
    • 5.19.2. THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority) Connected Vehicle Pilot
      • 5.19.2.1. Pilot Deployment Overview
      • 5.19.2.2. Supported V2X Applications
      • 5.19.2.3. Current Status of the Pilot Deployment
    • 5.19.3. WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport) Connected Vehicle Pilot
      • 5.19.3.1. Pilot Deployment Overview
      • 5.19.3.2. Supported V2X Applications
      • 5.19.3.3. Current Status of the Pilot Deployment
    • 5.19.4. Future Plans for Post-Pilot Operations
  • 5.20. Vodafone Group: Improving Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency with V2X
    • 5.20.1. Creating a Step-Change in Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency
    • 5.20.2. Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
    • 5.20.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.20.4. Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
  • 5.21. Volkswagen Group: Pioneering the Rollout of V2X-Equipped Vehicles in Europe
    • 5.21.1. WLANp: Group-Wide Implementation of IEEE 802.11p-Based V2X Technology in 2019
      • 5.21.1.1. Supported V2X Applications
      • 5.21.1.2. Efforts to Accelerate the Adoption of V2X Technology
      • 5.21.1.3. Integrating V2X-Capable Roadside Infrastructure & Other Road Users
    • 5.21.2. Audi: Delivering V2I Applications via On-Board LTE Connectivity
    • 5.21.3. Ducati Motor Holding: Developing V2X Interoperability Between Motorcycles, Vehicles & Infrastructure
    • 5.21.4. SEAT: Advancing V2X-Based Assisted Driving Applications
    • 5.21.5. TRATON (Scania & MAN): Piloting Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications
  • 5.22. Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks: Enabling Truck Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications with V2X
    • 5.22.1. Utilizing V2X to Develop Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications
    • 5.22.2. V2X Engagements Worldwide
    • 5.22.3. Supported V2X Applications
    • 5.22.4. Commercial Rollout Plans
  • 5.23. Other Notable V2X Engagements
    • 5.23.1. Automotive OEM Commitments
    • 5.23.2. Mobile Operator-Led C-V2X Projects & Trials
    • 5.23.3. Other Commercial, Pilot & Trial V2X Deployments

Chapter 6: V2X Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage

  • 6.1. Frequency Bands for V2X Communications
    • 6.1.1. Legacy V2I Systems
      • 6.1.1.1. 915 MHz
      • 6.1.1.2. Other Sub-1 GHz Bands
      • 6.1.1.3. 2.4 GHz
      • 6.1.1.4. 5.8 GHz
    • 6.1.2. Advanced V2X Technologies
      • 6.1.2.1. 760 MHz
      • 6.1.2.2. 3.4 - 3.8 GHz
      • 6.1.2.3. 5.9 GHz
      • 6.1.2.4. Higher Frequencies
  • 6.2. North America
    • 6.2.1. United States
    • 6.2.2. Canada
  • 6.3. Asia Pacific
    • 6.3.1. Australia
    • 6.3.2. China
    • 6.3.3. Japan
    • 6.3.4. South Korea
    • 6.3.5. Singapore
    • 6.3.6. Taiwan
    • 6.3.7. Thailand
    • 6.3.8. India
    • 6.3.9. Rest of Asia Pacific
  • 6.4. Europe
    • 6.4.1. EU & EFTA Countries
    • 6.4.2. Turkey
    • 6.4.3. Russia
    • 6.4.4. Other Countries
  • 6.5. Middle East & Africa
    • 6.5.1. GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council)
    • 6.5.2. Iran
    • 6.5.3. Israel
    • 6.5.4. South Africa
    • 6.5.5. Rest of the Middle East & Africa
  • 6.6. Latin & Central America
    • 6.6.1. Brazil
    • 6.6.2. Mexico
    • 6.6.3. Rest of Latin & Central America

Chapter 7: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives

  • 7.1. 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
    • 7.1.1. Release 14: LTE-V2X/Phase 1
    • 7.1.2. Release 15: eV2X (Enhanced V2X)/Phase 2
    • 7.1.3. Release 16: 5G NR-V2X/Phase 3
  • 7.2. 5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
    • 7.2.1. 5G/C-V2X Advocacy Efforts
    • 7.2.2. Working Groups
      • 7.2.2.1. WG1: Use Cases & Technical Requirements
      • 7.2.2.2. WG2: System Architecture & Solution Development
      • 7.2.2.3. WG3: Evaluation, Testbeds & Pilots
      • 7.2.2.4. WG4: Standards & Spectrum
      • 7.2.2.5. WG5: Business Models & Go-To-Market Strategies
  • 7.3. 5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
    • 7.3.1. 5G-Based V2X R&D Efforts
  • 7.4. AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
    • 7.4.1. Frequency Coordination for V2X Communications
    • 7.4.2. V2X Policy, Deployment Guidance & Related Efforts
    • 7.4.3. Work on Connected Autonomous Driving
  • 7.5. ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
    • 7.5.1. Connected & Automated Driving-Related Work
  • 7.6. AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
    • 7.6.1. Edge Computing System Design for V2I & V2N Applications
  • 7.7. Amsterdam Group
    • 7.7.1. V2X Deployment Roadmap
    • 7.7.2. Corridor Initiatives
    • 7.7.3. Functional Specifications & Other V2X-Related Efforts
  • 7.8. ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
    • 7.8.1. ARIB STD T75: 5.8 GHz DSRC System for V2I Applications
    • 7.8.2. ARIB STD T88: DSRC Application Sub-Layer
    • 7.8.3. ARIB STD T110: DSRC Basic Application Interface
    • 7.8.4. ARIB STD-T109: 760 MHz Advanced V2X System
  • 7.9. U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy)
    • 7.9.1. NEXTCAR (Next-Generation Energy Technologies for Connected & Automated On-Road Vehicles)
      • 7.9.1.1. Use of V2X Connectivity for Vehicle Control & Powertrain Optimization
  • 7.10. ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
    • 7.10.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.11. Association of Global Automakers
    • 7.11.1. Connected Automation Advocacy
  • 7.12. ASTM International
    • 7.12.1. Legacy DSRC Standards
    • 7.12.2. ASTM E2213-03: 5.9 GHz DSRC MAC & PHY Specifications
  • 7.13. ATA (American Trucking Associations)
    • 7.13.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.14. ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
    • 7.14.1. V2X Security Guidance & Requirements
    • 7.14.2. Other V2X-Related Work
  • 7.15. Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
    • 7.15.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.16. AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture)
    • 7.16.1. V2X Stack Specifications
  • 7.17. C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
    • 7.17.1. BSP (Basic System Profile) for V2X Systems in Europe
    • 7.17.2. PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) for V2X Security
    • 7.17.3. Advocacy Efforts to Preserve the 5.9 GHz Band for ITS-G5
    • 7.17.4. Other V2X-Related Efforts
  • 7.18. CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
    • 7.18.1. V2X Working Group
  • 7.19. CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
    • 7.19.1. SCMS (Security Credential Management System) for V2X Communications
    • 7.19.2. Other V2X-Related Efforts
  • 7.20. CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
    • 7.20.1. CAV-ELT (Connected and Automated Vehicle Executive Leadership Team): CAV-Focused Working Groups
    • 7.20.2. V2I DC (Vehicle to Infrastructure Deployment Coalition): V2I Working Groups
  • 7.21. CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
    • 7.21.1. V2X-Related Projects
  • 7.22. CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
    • 7.22.1. LTE-V2X Standardization
  • 7.23. CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
    • 7.23.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.24. ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
    • 7.24.1. C-V2X Field Trials & Demonstrations
  • 7.25. CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
    • 7.25.1. CEN TC 278
      • 7.25.1.1. CEN DSRC Family of Standards
      • 7.25.1.2. EFC (Electronic Feed Collection) & V2I Applications
      • 7.25.1.3. Standards for C-ITS/Advanced V2X Systems
  • 7.26. CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
    • 7.26.1. ITS-Related Standards
  • 7.27. CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
    • 7.27.1. ECC (Electronic Communications Committee)
    • 7.27.2. WG SE (Working Group Spectrum Engineering)
    • 7.27.3. Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications in Europe
  • 7.28. C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
    • 7.28.1. Chinese National Standards for V2X
  • 7.29. CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
    • 7.29.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.30. CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
    • 7.30.1. Standardization for Motorcycle-Specific V2X Systems
    • 7.30.2. Feasibility Testing & Prototyping
  • 7.31. EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
    • 7.31.1. Efforts to Facilitate the Deployment of Connected & Automated Driving
  • 7.32. ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
    • 7.32.1. Working Group on Connectivity & Automated Driving
  • 7.33. ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
    • 7.33.1. TC ITS (Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems)
      • 7.33.1.1. ETSI TR 101 607: C-ITS (Cooperative ITS) Release 1
      • 7.33.1.2. ETSI EN 302 663: ITS-G5 Access Layer Standard
      • 7.33.1.3. ETSI TS 102 724: Harmonized Channel Specifications for ITS-G5
      • 7.33.1.4. ETSI TS 102 792: Co-Existence Between CEN DSRC & ITS-G5
      • 7.33.1.5. ETSI TS 102 687/103 175: DCC (Decentralized Congestion Control) Mechanisms
      • 7.33.1.6. ETSI EN 302 665: ITS Communications Architecture
      • 7.33.1.7. ETSI EN 302 637-2: CAMs (Cooperative Awareness Messages)
      • 7.33.1.8. ETSI EN 302 637-3: DENMs (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)
      • 7.33.1.9. ETSI EN 302 895: LDM (Local Dynamic Map) Specification
      • 7.33.1.10. ETSI TS 103 301: Protocols & Communication Requirements for Infrastructure Services
      • 7.33.1.11. ETSI TS 101 539 Series: Safety-Related V2X Applications
      • 7.33.1.12. ETSI TS 101 556 Series: V2I Applications
      • 7.33.1.13. ETSI TS 102 894-1: Facility Layer Structure, Functional Requirements & Specifications
      • 7.33.1.14. TS 102 890 Series: Additional Facility Layer Specifications
      • 7.33.1.15. ETSI TS 102 894-2: Common Data Dictionary
      • 7.33.1.16. ETSI EN 302 636 Series: GeoNetworking Protocol
      • 7.33.1.17. ETSI TS 102 731, 102 940-943, 103 097: V2X Security Standards
      • 7.33.1.18. Other Release 1 Standards
      • 7.33.1.19. Work on C-ITS Release 2 & Advanced V2X Applications
    • 7.33.2. ETSI TC ERM (Electromagnetic Compatibility & Radio Spectrum Matters)
      • 7.33.2.1. ETSI EN 302 571: Harmonized Standard for ITS-G5 (5.9 GHz) Spectrum
      • 7.33.2.2. ETSI EN 302 686: Harmonized Standard for 63 - 64 GHz ITS Spectrum
    • 7.33.3. Other Complementary Standards
  • 7.34. EU Mandates & Directives
    • 7.34.1. Action Plan for the Deployment of ITS
    • 7.34.2. Mandate M/453 on Cooperative Systems for Intelligent Transport
    • 7.34.3. EU ITS Directive 2010/40/EU
    • 7.34.4. Supporting Groups for the EU ITS Directive
      • 7.34.4.1. EIC (European ITS Committee)
      • 7.34.4.2. European ITS Advisory Group
    • 7.34.5. Mandate M/546 on Urban ITS
    • 7.34.6. Declaration of Amsterdam on Connected & Automated Driving
    • 7.34.7. COM (2016) 766: EU C-ITS Strategy
    • 7.34.8. Letter of Intent on Cooperative, Connected & Automated Mobility
    • 7.34.9. Third EU Mobility Package
    • 7.34.10. C-ITS Delegated Act Under Directive 2010/40/EU: Specifications for the Provision of C-ITS
  • 7.35. EU-Funded V2X Deployment Initiatives & Projects
    • 7.35.1. C-ITS Deployment Platform
    • 7.35.2. C-Roads Platform
    • 7.35.3. Cooperative ITS Corridor
    • 7.35.4. InterCor (Interoperable Corridors)
    • 7.35.5. CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation)
    • 7.35.6. C-MobILE (Accelerating C-ITS Mobility Innovation & Deployment in Europe)
    • 7.35.7. NEWBITS (New Business models for ITS)
    • 7.35.8. CIMEC (Cooperative ITS for Mobility in European Cities)
    • 7.35.9. CODECS (Cooperative ITS Deployment Coordination Support)
    • 7.35.10. MAVEN (Managing Automated Vehicles Enhances Network)
    • 7.35.11. TransAID (Transition Areas for Infrastructure-Assisted Driving)
    • 7.35.12. Auto C-ITS
    • 7.35.13. C-V2X Projects
      • 7.35.13.1. 5GCAR (Fifth Generation Communication Automotive Research & Innovation)
      • 7.35.13.2. 5GCroco (5G Cross Border Control)
      • 7.35.13.3. 5G-Carmen (5G for Connected & Automated Road Mobility in the European Union)
      • 7.35.13.4. 5G-Mobix (5G for Cooperative & Connected Automated Mobility on X-Border Corridors)
    • 7.35.14. Other EU-Funded Projects
    • 7.35.15. CAD (Connected Automated Driving) Initiative
      • 7.35.15.1. ARCADE (Aligning Research & Innovation for Connected & Automated Driving in Europe)
      • 7.35.15.2. CARTRE (Coordination of Automated Road Transport Deployment for Europe)
      • 7.35.15.3. SCOUT (Safe & COnnected AUtomation in Road Transport)
      • 7.35.15.4. EUCAD (European Conference on Connected & Automated Driving)
    • 7.35.16. Round Table on CAD (Connected & Automated Driving)
    • 7.35.17. Gear 2030 HLG (High Level Group)
  • 7.36. EU-US C-ITS Task Force
    • 7.36.1. HWG (Standards Harmonization Working Group) & HTGs (Harmonization Task Groups)
      • 7.36.1.1. HTG 1: ITS Security
      • 7.36.1.2. HTG 2: BSM (Basic Safety Message)/CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Harmonization
      • 7.36.1.3. HTG 3: ITS Communications
      • 7.36.1.4. HTG 4/5: Infrastructure Messages
      • 7.36.1.5. HTG 6: C-ITS Security Policy
      • 7.36.1.6. HTG 7: Standards Selection, Gap Analysis & Identifiers
      • 7.36.1.7. HTG 8 & 9: Candidate Future Work Items
  • 7.37. GCF (Global Certification Forum)
    • 7.37.1. C-V2X Certification Program
  • 7.38. GENIVI Alliance
    • 7.38.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.39. GSMA
    • 7.39.1. C-V2X Advocacy Efforts
  • 7.40. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
    • 7.40.1. ISO/IEC JTC 1
      • 7.40.1.1. SC31 WG4: RFID Standards for V2I Applications
      • 7.40.1.2. Other V2X-Related Standardization Activities
  • 7.41. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
    • 7.41.1. IEEE 802.11p/OCB for V2X Communications
    • 7.41.2. IEEE 1609.x Family of Standards for WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments)
    • 7.41.3. IEEE 802.11 NGV (Next Generation V2X) Study Group
      • 7.41.3.1. IEEE 802.11bd Amendment Project
    • 7.41.4. IEEE P2040 for Connected, Automated & Intelligent Vehicles
    • 7.41.5. IEEE P2690 for Charging Network Management Protocol in Electric Vehicle Charging Systems
    • 7.41.6. Other Relevant Standards
  • 7.42. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
    • 7.42.1. IPWAVE (IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) WG
      • 7.42.1.1. IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
  • 7.43. IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
    • 7.43.1. TSAC (Telecommunications Standards Advisory Committee)
      • 7.43.1.1. Technical Specification for DSRC
  • 7.44. IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
    • 7.44.1. C-V2X Working Group
  • 7.45. ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
    • 7.45.1. Spectrum Allocation for V2X
    • 7.45.2. RSS-252: Certification Requirements for V2X OBU Devices
  • 7.46. ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
    • 7.46.1. TC 204
      • 7.46.1.1. V2X Communications
      • 7.46.1.2. V2X Applications & Complementary Technologies
      • 7.46.1.3. V2X Security
  • 7.47. ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
    • 7.47.1. Connected Vehicle Initiative
    • 7.47.2. Cybersecurity Framework & Tools for Roadway Infrastructure
    • 7.47.3. Other V2X-Related Efforts
  • 7.48. ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
    • 7.48.1. V2X Spectrum Advocacy
    • 7.48.2. V2X Task Force
    • 7.48.3. Other V2X-Related Efforts
  • 7.49. ERTICO - ITS Europe
    • 7.49.1. V2X Research, Pilot & Deployment Project Management
    • 7.49.2. Other Efforts Related to Connected & Automated Driving
  • 7.50. Other National & Regional ITS Representative Societies
    • 7.50.1. ATEC ITS France
    • 7.50.2. ITS Asia-Pacific
    • 7.50.3. ITS Australia
    • 7.50.4. ITS Canada
    • 7.50.5. ITS China
    • 7.50.6. ITS Japan
    • 7.50.7. ITS Korea
    • 7.50.8. ITS Singapore
    • 7.50.9. ITS Taiwan
    • 7.50.10. ITS UK (United Kingdom)
    • 7.50.11. Others
  • 7.51. ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
    • 7.51.1. TD-001: Inter-Vehicle Communication Message Specifications
    • 7.51.2. Other Specifications & Guidelines
  • 7.52. ITS Info-Communications Forum
    • 7.52.1. Guidelines for 760 MHz & 5.8 GHz V2X Systems
    • 7.52.2. Work on C-V2X/Technology-Neutral Applications
  • 7.53. ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
    • 7.53.1. ITU-R (ITU Radiocommunication Sector)
      • 7.53.1.1. SG5 WP5A, WG 5A-5 (Study Group 5, Working Party 5A, Working Group 5)
      • 7.53.1.2. M.1453: ITS - DSRC at 5.8 GHz
      • 7.53.1.3. M.1890: Guidelines & Objectives for ITS
      • 7.53.1.4. M.2084: Radio Interface Standards of V2X Communications for ITS Applications
      • 7.53.1.5. M.[ITS_FRQ]: Harmonization of Frequency Bands for ITS
      • 7.53.1.6. V2X-Related Study Items & Supplementary Reports
    • 7.53.2. ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector)
      • 7.53.2.1. SG17: Recommendations for V2X Security
      • 7.53.2.2. SG20: Framework & Requirements for C-ITS/Safety-Related Services
      • 7.53.2.3. V2X-Related Recommendations in Other SGs
      • 7.53.2.4. CITS (Collaboration on ITS Communication Standards)
  • 7.54. JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
    • 7.54.1. V2X-Related Standards
  • 7.55. JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
    • 7.55.1. ITS Standardization Committee
      • 7.55.1.1. V2X-Related Standardization Work
  • 7.56. KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards)
    • 7.56.1. V2X-Related Standardization Efforts
  • 7.57. KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers)
    • 7.57.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.58. Linux Foundation
    • 7.58.1. AGL (Automotive Grade Linux): Open Software Stack for Connected Vehicles
  • 7.59. MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association)
    • 7.59.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.60. MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
    • 7.60.1. CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
      • 7.60.1.1. V2X Development, Testing & Promotion in China
  • 7.61. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan)
    • 7.61.1. V2X Deployment & Related Efforts
  • 7.62. MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea)
    • 7.62.1. C-ITS Pilot Project
    • 7.62.2. Other V2X Related Efforts
  • 7.63. U.S. NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research Program)
    • 7.63.1. NCHRP 20-102: Impacts of Connected Vehicles & Automated Vehicles on State & Local Transportation Agencies
    • 7.63.2. NCHRP 03-127: Cybersecurity of Traffic Management Systems
    • 7.63.3. NCHRP 20-24(98): Connected/Automated Vehicle Research Roadmap for AASHTO
    • 7.63.4. Other Projects
  • 7.64. NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
    • 7.64.1. NTCIP (National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol)
  • 7.65. NGMN Alliance
    • 7.65.1. V2X Task Force & White Paper
  • 7.66. NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)
    • 7.66.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.67. U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    • 7.67.1. CSF (Cybersecurity Framework)
      • 7.67.1.1. Application of NIST's CSF to Connected Vehicle Environments
  • 7.68. OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers)
    • 7.68.1. V2X Standards Harmonization Efforts
  • 7.69. OmniAir Consortium
    • 7.69.1. Connected Vehicle Certification Program
    • 7.69.2. Other V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.70. oneM2M
    • 7.70.1. V2X-Related Standardization Efforts
  • 7.71. PIARC (World Road Association)
    • 7.71.1. Task Force B.1: V2X Technology in Road Design & Infrastructure
    • 7.71.2. Task Force B.2: Automated Vehicles
    • 7.71.3. Other V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.72. POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation)
    • 7.72.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.73. SAE International
    • 7.73.1. DSRC TC (Technical Committee)
      • 7.73.1.1. SAE J2735: DSRC Message Set Dictionary
      • 7.73.1.2. SAE J2945/x Suite of Standards for V2X Applications
      • 7.73.1.3. Other DSRC TC Standards
    • 7.73.2. C-V2X TC (Technical Committee)
      • 7.73.2.1. SAE J3161: On-Board System Requirements for LTE V2X/V2V Safety Communications
      • 7.73.2.2. Standardization Efforts for Advanced V2X Applications
      • 7.73.2.3. SAE J3186: MSCS (Maneuver Sharing & Coordinating Service)
      • 7.73.2.4. Addressing the Needs of Road Operators
    • 7.73.3. Vehicle Cybersecurity Systems Engineering Committee
      • 7.73.3.1. J3061: Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Automotive Systems
      • 7.73.3.2. Other Vehicle Cybersecurity Standards
    • 7.73.4. Other V2X-Related Standards
  • 7.74. SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China)
    • 7.74.1. T/CSAE 53-2017: V2X Application Layer Standard
    • 7.74.2. Other V2X-Related Efforts
  • 7.75. Safety Spectrum Coalition
    • 7.75.1. V2X Spectrum Advocacy
  • 7.76. SIP (Japan's Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program)
    • 7.76.1. SIP-adus (Automated Driving for Universal Services)
      • 7.76.1.1. V2X-Related R&D Efforts
  • 7.77. TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards)
    • 7.77.1. TC8 (Technical Committee 8): IoV (Internet of Vehicles) & Automated Driving
  • 7.78. TCA (Transport Certification Australia)
    • 7.78.1. C-ITS Standardization, Interoperability, Security & Related-Efforts
    • 7.78.2. National Telematics Framework: Facilitating Telematics-Related V2X Applications
  • 7.79. TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
    • 7.79.1. V2X-Related Advocacy Efforts
  • 7.80. TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance)
    • 7.80.1. V2X-Related Standards, Demonstrations & Testing
  • 7.81. TISA (Travelers Information Services Association)
    • 7.81.1. V2X-Related Activities
  • 7.82. Transport Canada
    • 7.82.1. National Framework & Programs for Automated & Connected Vehicles
    • 7.82.2. Canada-U.S RCC (Regulatory Cooperation Council): Connected Vehicles Work-Plan
  • 7.83. TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
    • 7.83.1. Vehicle Communications System Standards
  • 7.84. TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
    • 7.84.1. V2X-Related Standardization Efforts
  • 7.85. UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
    • 7.85.1. WP.29 (Working Party 29): World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations
    • 7.85.2. Working Party on Automated/Autonomous & Connected Vehicles
  • 7.86. USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation)
    • 7.86.1. ITS Joint Program Office
    • 7.86.2. CV (Connected Vehicle) Program
      • 7.86.2.1. CV Pilot Deployments
      • 7.86.2.2. CV Application Prototyping
    • 7.86.3. Connected Autonomous Vehicle Research
    • 7.86.4. ITS Standards Program
    • 7.86.5. ARC-IT (Architecture Reference for Cooperative & Intelligent Transportation)
    • 7.86.6. U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration)
      • 7.86.6.1. FMVSS 150: V2V NPRM (Notice of Proposed Rulemaking) for Light Vehicles
      • 7.86.6.2. Heavy Vehicle V2V Research
      • 7.86.6.3. DOT HS 812 333: Cybersecurity for Modern Vehicles
    • 7.86.7. U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration)
      • 7.86.7.1. V2I Deployment Guidance
      • 7.86.7.2. CARMA (Cooperative Automation Research Mobility Applications) Platform
    • 7.86.8. U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration)
      • 7.86.8.1. V2X Applications for Commercial Vehicles
    • 7.86.9. U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration)
      • 7.86.9.1. V2X Applications for Public Transit Systems
  • 7.87. VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies)
    • 7.87.1. ITS-G5 Advocacy Efforts
  • 7.88. VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium)
    • 7.88.1. V2X-Related Policy Issues
  • 7.89. W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
    • 7.89.1. Automotive Working Group
      • 7.89.1.1. VISS (Vehicle Information Service Specification)
      • 7.89.1.2. RSI (Restful Service Interface)
      • 7.89.1.3. Previous Work
    • 7.89.2. Automotive & Web Platform Business Group

Chapter 8: Future Roadmap & Value Chain

  • 8.1. Future Roadmap
    • 8.1.1. Pre-2020: Early Commitments by Automakers & Other Stakeholders
    • 8.1.2. 2020 - 2025: Mass-Market Adoption of V2X for Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency
    • 8.1.3. 2026 - 2030: Towards Connected Autonomous Driving & 5G-Based V2X Applications
  • 8.2. Value Chain
    • 8.2.1. V2X Hardware & Software Suppliers
    • 8.2.2. Automotive OEMs
    • 8.2.3. Aftermarket Manufacturers
    • 8.2.4. System Integrators
    • 8.2.5. Application Service Providers
    • 8.2.6. Communications Service Providers
    • 8.2.7. Road Users & Operators
    • 8.2.8. Other Ecosystem Players

Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players

  • 9.1. A1 Telekom Austria Group
  • 9.2. AASA/01LightCom
  • 9.3. ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
  • 9.4. Airbiquity
  • 9.5. Airgain
  • 9.6. Alibaba Group
  • 9.7. Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics)
  • 9.8. Amphenol Corporation
  • 9.9. Anritsu Corporation
  • 9.10. Apple
  • 9.11. Applied Information
  • 9.12. Aptiv (Delphi Automotive)
  • 9.13. Aricent/Altran
  • 9.14. ARM Holdings
  • 9.15. Arteris IP
  • 9.16. Aston Martin Lagonda
  • 9.17. ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
  • 9.18. AT&T
  • 9.19. Athena Group
  • 9.20. Audi
  • 9.21. Autotalks
  • 9.22. Aventi Intelligent Communication
  • 9.23. BAIC Group/BJEV
  • 9.24. Baidu
  • 9.25. Battelle
  • 9.26. BCE (Bell Canada)
  • 9.27. BlackBerry/QNX Software Systems/Certicom
  • 9.28. BMW Group
  • 9.29. BMW Motorrad
  • 9.30. Boréal Bikes
  • 9.31. Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings)
  • 9.32. Broadcom
  • 9.33. Bureau Veritas/7Layers
  • 9.34. BYD
  • 9.35. CalAmp/LoJack
  • 9.36. Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology)
  • 9.37. CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology)
  • 9.38. CETECOM
  • 9.39. CEVA
  • 9.40. Changan Automobile
  • 9.41. Chemtronics
  • 9.42. Chery
  • 9.43. China Mobile/CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
  • 9.44. China Telecom
  • 9.45. China Transinfo
  • 9.46. China Unicom
  • 9.47. Chunghwa Telecom
  • 9.48. CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute)
  • 9.49. Cisco Systems
  • 9.50. Clarion
  • 9.51. Cohda Wireless
  • 9.52. Commsignia
  • 9.53. Confidex
  • 9.54. Connected Signals
  • 9.55. Continental
  • 9.56. Cubic Corporation
  • 9.57. Cubic Telecom
  • 9.58. Cybercom Group
  • 9.59. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
  • 9.60. Daimler
  • 9.61. Daimler Trucks
  • 9.62. Danlaw
  • 9.63. Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group/CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)
  • 9.64. DEKRA
  • 9.65. Delphi Technologies
  • 9.66. Denso Corporation
  • 9.67. Derq
  • 9.68. Desay SV Automotive
  • 9.69. DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation)
  • 9.70. DT (Deutsche Telekom)
  • 9.71. DT&C
  • 9.72. Ducati Motor Holding
  • 9.73. Econolite
  • 9.74. EFKON
  • 9.75. Ericsson
  • 9.76. ESCRYPT/ETAS
  • 9.77. eSSys
  • 9.78. ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
  • 9.79. Faraday Future
  • 9.80. FAW Group
  • 9.81. FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)
  • 9.82. Ferrari
  • 9.83. FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
  • 9.84. FEV Group
  • 9.85. Ficosa
  • 9.86. Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks)
  • 9.87. Flex
  • 9.88. FLIR Systems
  • 9.89. Fluidmesh Networks
  • 9.90. Ford Motor Company
  • 9.91. Foresight Autonomous Holdings
  • 9.92. Forward Electronics
  • 9.93. Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
  • 9.94. Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
  • 9.95. Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
  • 9.96. Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology)
  • 9.97. Fujitsu
  • 9.98. GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group)
  • 9.99. Geely Holding/Geely Auto
  • 9.100. Gemalto
  • 9.101. Genvict
  • 9.102. GM (General Motors)
  • 9.103. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
  • 9.104. Gosuncn Technology Group
  • 9.105. Great Wall Motor Company
  • 9.106. Green Hills Software/ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services)
  • 9.107. Griiip
  • 9.108. Groupe PSA
  • 9.109. Groupe Renault
  • 9.110. HAAS Alert
  • 9.111. Hancom MDS
  • 9.112. Harada Industry
  • 9.113. Helix Technologies
  • 9.114. HELLA
  • 9.115. HERE Technologies
  • 9.116. Hino Motors
  • 9.117. Hitachi
  • 9.118. HKT/PCCW
  • 9.119. HNTB Corporation
  • 9.120. Honda Motor Corporation
  • 9.121. HORIBA MIRA
  • 9.122. HSAE/Hangsheng Technology
  • 9.123. Huali/iSmartWays Technology
  • 9.124. Huawei/HiSilicon
  • 9.125. Hyundai Mobis
  • 9.126. Hyundai Motor Group (Hyundai Motor Company/ Kia Motors Corporation)
  • 9.127. IAV
  • 9.128. IBM Corporation
  • 9.129. IDnomic
  • 9.130. Infineon Technologies
  • 9.131. INRIX
  • 9.132. Intel Corporation/Mobileye
  • 9.133. InterDigital
  • 9.134. Intertek
  • 9.135. Invengo
  • 9.136. Isuzu Motors
  • 9.137. Iteris
  • 9.138. ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
  • 9.139. iTRONICS
  • 9.140. ITT (IT Telecom)
  • 9.141. Iveco/CNH Industrial
  • 9.142. Jin Woo Industrial
  • 9.143. JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)/Tata Motors
  • 9.144. JRC (Japan Radio Company)
  • 9.145. Juniper Networks
  • 9.146. JVCKENWOOD Corporation
  • 9.147. Kapsch TrafficCom
  • 9.148. Karamba Security
  • 9.149. Kawasaki Heavy Industries
  • 9.150. KDDI Corporation
  • 9.151. Keysight Technologies
  • 9.152. KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal)
  • 9.153. KPN
  • 9.154. KT Corporation
  • 9.155. KTM
  • 9.156. Kymeta Corporation
  • 9.157. Kyocera Corporation
  • 9.158. LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia
  • 9.159. Lear Corporation
  • 9.160. Leidos
  • 9.161. Lenovo/Motorola Mobility
  • 9.162. Leonardo
  • 9.163. Lesswire/Prettl Group
  • 9.164. LG Electronics/LG Innotek
  • 9.165. LITE-ON Technology Corporation
  • 9.166. LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons)
  • 9.167. Lucid Motors
  • 9.168. Luxoft/Objective Software/DXC Technology
  • 9.169. Lyft
  • 9.170. Magna International
  • 9.171. Magneti Marelli
  • 9.172. Mando Corporation/Halla Group
  • 9.173. Marben
  • 9.174. Marvell
  • 9.175. Mazda Motor Corporation
  • 9.176. McLaren Automotive
  • 9.177. Mediatek
  • 9.178. MET Labs (MET Laboratories)/Eurofins Scientific
  • 9.179. Michelin
  • 9.180. Microchip Technology/Microsemi Corporation
  • 9.181. Microsoft Corporation
  • 9.182. MinebeaMitsumi Group
  • 9.183. Mitsuba Corporation
  • 9.184. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • 9.185. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
  • 9.186. Mobile Mark
  • 9.187. Molex/Laird CVS (Connected Vehicle Solutions)
  • 9.188. Murata Manufacturing
  • 9.189. NavInfo
  • 9.190. Navistar
  • 9.191. Navya
  • 9.192. Nebula Link
  • 9.193. NEC Corporation
  • 9.194. Neology/SMARTRAC
  • 9.195. Neoway Technology
  • 9.196. Neusoft Reach
  • 9.197. NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden)
  • 9.198. Nexar
  • 9.199. Nexus Group
  • 9.200. NI (National Instruments)
  • 9.201. NIO
  • 9.202. Nissan Motor Corporation
  • 9.203. NJR (New Japan Radio)
  • 9.204. Nokia
  • 9.205. Nordsys
  • 9.206. Noris Network
  • 9.207. NTT DoCoMo
  • 9.208. NXP Semiconductors
  • 9.209. Oki Electric Industry
  • 9.210. Oledcomm
  • 9.211. OnBoard Security/Security Innovation
  • 9.212. OPPO
  • 9.213. Orange
  • 9.214. P3 Group
  • 9.215. PACCAR/DAF Trucks
  • 9.216. Panasonic Corporation
  • 9.217. Parsons Corporation
  • 9.218. Peloton Technology
  • 9.219. Penta Security Systems
  • 9.220. Phantom Auto
  • 9.221. Pioneer Corporation/ IPC (Increment P Corporation)
  • 9.222. Proximus Group
  • 9.223. Pulse Electronics
  • 9.224. pureLiFi
  • 9.225. Q-Free
  • 9.226. Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence)
  • 9.227. Qorvo
  • 9.228. Qosmotec Software Solutions
  • 9.229. Qualcomm
  • 9.230. Quectel Wireless Solutions
  • 9.231. RANIX
  • 9.232. Redpine Signals
  • 9.233. Renesas Electronics Corporation
  • 9.234. Robert Bosch
  • 9.235. Rohde & Schwarz
  • 9.236. ROHM Semiconductor
  • 9.237. RoyalTek
  • 9.238. S.E.A. Datentechnik
  • 9.239. SAIC Motor Corporation
  • 9.240. Saleen Automotive
  • 9.241. Samsung Electronics/HARMAN International
  • 9.242. Sanjole
  • 9.243. Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori
  • 9.244. Savari
  • 9.245. SEAT
  • 9.246. Sensefields
  • 9.247. Sequans Communications
  • 9.248. SGS
  • 9.249. Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free)
  • 9.250. Siemens/Mentor/TASS International
  • 9.251. Sierra Wireless
  • 9.252. Sinclair Broadcast Group
  • 9.253. SiriusXM/Automatic Labs
  • 9.254. SK C&C
  • 9.255. SK Telecom
  • 9.256. Skoda Auto
  • 9.257. Skyworks Solutions
  • 9.258. Smart Mobile Labs
  • 9.259. Smarteq Wireless/Allgon
  • 9.260. Socionext
  • 9.261. SoftBank Group
  • 9.262. Spirent Communications
  • 9.263. SsangYong Motor Company/Mahindra & Mahindra
  • 9.264. STAR Systems International
  • 9.265. STMicroelectronics
  • 9.266. sTraffic
  • 9.267. Subaru Corporation
  • 9.268. Sumitomo Electric Industries
  • 9.269. Sunsea AIoT/SIMCom Wireless Solutions/Longsung Technology
  • 9.270. Suzuki Motor Corporation
  • 9.271. Swarco/McCain
  • 9.272. Synopsys
  • 9.273. Taiwan Mobile
  • 9.274. Taoglas
  • 9.275. TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company)
  • 9.276. Tata AutoComp Systems
  • 9.277. Tata Elxsi
  • 9.278. TE Connectivity/Hirschmann Car Communication
  • 9.279. Telefónica Group
  • 9.280. Telenor Group/Telenor Connexion
  • 9.281. Telit Communications
  • 9.282. Telstra
  • 9.283. Telus Corporation
  • 9.284. Tencent
  • 9.285. Terranet
  • 9.286. Tesla
  • 9.287. TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
  • 9.288. Tome Software
  • 9.289. TomTom
  • 9.290. Toshiba Corporation
  • 9.291. TowerJazz
  • 9.292. Toyota Motor Corporation
  • 9.293. TransCore
  • 9.294. TRATON/Scania/MAN
  • 9.295. Trek Bicycle Corporation
  • 9.296. TTS (Traffic Technology Services)
  • 9.297. TÜV Rheinland
  • 9.298. TÜV SÜD
  • 9.299. Uber Technologies
  • 9.300. U-Blox
  • 9.301. UL
  • 9.302. Unex Technology Corporation
  • 9.303. Unicore Communications/Beijing BDStar Navigation
  • 9.304. Unisoc
  • 9.305. Valens
  • 9.306. Valeo
  • 9.307. Vector Informatik
  • 9.308. Veniam
  • 9.309. Veoneer/Autoliv
  • 9.310. Verizon Communications/Verizon Connect
  • 9.311. Viavi Solutions
  • 9.312. Vinli
  • 9.313. Visteon Corporation
  • 9.314. VLNComm
  • 9.315. Vodafone Group
  • 9.316. Volkswagen Group
  • 9.317. Volvo Cars
  • 9.318. Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks
  • 9.319. VT iDirect
  • 9.320. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • 9.321. Wanji Technology
  • 9.322. Waymo/Alphabet/Google
  • 9.323. Wayties
  • 9.324. Wieson Technologies
  • 9.325. WISeKey
  • 9.326. WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
  • 9.327. WSP Global
  • 9.328. Xiaomi Corporation
  • 9.329. Xilinx
  • 9.330. Yamaha Motor Company
  • 9.331. YoGoKo
  • 9.332. Yokowo
  • 9.333. ZF
  • 9.334. Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International)
  • 9.335. ZTE

Chapter 10: Market Sizing & Forecasts

  • 10.1. Global Outlook for V2X Communications Technology
  • 10.2. Segmentation by Submarket
  • 10.3. V2X Terminal Equipment
    • 10.3.1. V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue
    • 10.3.2. Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
      • 10.3.2.1. C-V2X
      • 10.3.2.2. LTE-V2X
      • 10.3.2.3. 5G-NR V2X
      • 10.3.2.4. IEEE 802.11p
      • 10.3.2.5. IEEE 802.11p-2010
      • 10.3.2.6. IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 10.4. V2X OBUs
    • 10.4.1. V2X OBU Shipments & Revenue
    • 10.4.2. Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
      • 10.4.2.1. C-V2X
      • 10.4.2.2. LTE-V2X
      • 10.4.2.3. 5G-NR V2X
      • 10.4.2.4. IEEE 802.11p
      • 10.4.2.5. IEEE 802.11p-2010
      • 10.4.2.6. IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 10.5. V2X RSUs
    • 10.5.1. V2X RSU Shipments & Revenue
    • 10.5.2. Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
      • 10.5.2.1. C-V2X
      • 10.5.2.2. LTE-V2X
      • 10.5.2.3. 5G-NR V2X
      • 10.5.2.4. IEEE 802.11p
      • 10.5.2.5. IEEE 802.11p-2010
      • 10.5.2.6. IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 10.6. V2X Applications
    • 10.6.1. V2X Application Revenue
    • 10.6.2. Segmentation by Application Category
      • 10.6.2.1. Road Safety
      • 10.6.2.2. Traffic Management & Optimization
      • 10.6.2.3. Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
      • 10.6.2.4. Transit & Public Transport
      • 10.6.2.5. Commercial Vehicle Operations
      • 10.6.2.6. Emergency Services & Public Safety
      • 10.6.2.7. Environmental Sustainability
      • 10.6.2.8. Road Weather Management
      • 10.6.2.9. Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application
      • 10.6.2.10. Value-Added Services
  • 10.7. V2X Backend Network Elements
    • 10.7.1. V2X Backend Network Element Revenue
  • 10.8. V2X Security
    • 10.8.1. V2X Security Revenue
  • 10.9. Global Installed Base of V2X-Equipped Vehicles & RSUs
    • 10.9.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.9.1.1. Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
      • 10.9.1.2. C-V2X
      • 10.9.1.3. LTE-V2X
      • 10.9.1.4. 5G NR-V2X
      • 10.9.1.5. IEEE 802.11p
      • 10.9.1.6. IEEE 802.11p-2010
      • 10.9.1.7. IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
    • 10.9.2. V2X RSUs
      • 10.9.2.1. Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
      • 10.9.2.2. C-V2X
      • 10.9.2.3. LTE-V2X
      • 10.9.2.4. 5G-NR V2X
      • 10.9.2.5. IEEE 802.11p
      • 10.9.2.6. IEEE 802.11p-2010
      • 10.9.2.7. IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
  • 10.10. Regional Outlook
    • 10.10.1. Submarkets
      • 10.10.1.1. V2X Terminal Equipment
      • 10.10.1.2. V2X OBUs
      • 10.10.1.3. V2X RSUs
      • 10.10.1.4. V2X Applications
      • 10.10.1.5. V2X Backend Network Elements
      • 10.10.1.6. V2X Security
    • 10.10.2. Installed Base
      • 10.10.2.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.10.2.2. V2X RSUs
  • 10.11. North America
    • 10.11.1. Submarkets
      • 10.11.1.1. V2X Terminal Equipment
      • 10.11.1.2. V2X OBUs
      • 10.11.1.3. V2X RSUs
      • 10.11.1.4. V2X Applications
      • 10.11.1.5. V2X Backend Network Elements
      • 10.11.1.6. V2X Security
    • 10.11.2. Installed Base
      • 10.11.2.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.11.2.2. V2X RSUs
  • 10.12. Asia Pacific
    • 10.12.1. Submarkets
      • 10.12.1.1. V2X Terminal Equipment
      • 10.12.1.2. V2X OBUs
      • 10.12.1.3. V2X RSUs
      • 10.12.1.4. V2X Applications
      • 10.12.1.5. V2X Backend Network Elements
      • 10.12.1.6. V2X Security
    • 10.12.2. Installed Base
      • 10.12.2.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.12.2.2. V2X RSUs
  • 10.13. Europe
    • 10.13.1. Submarkets
      • 10.13.1.1. V2X Terminal Equipment
      • 10.13.1.2. V2X OBUs
      • 10.13.1.3. V2X RSUs
      • 10.13.1.4. V2X Applications
      • 10.13.1.5. V2X Backend Network Elements
      • 10.13.1.6. V2X Security
    • 10.13.2. Installed Base
      • 10.13.2.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.13.2.2. V2X RSUs
  • 10.14. Middle East & Africa
    • 10.14.1. Submarkets
      • 10.14.1.1. V2X Terminal Equipment
      • 10.14.1.2. V2X OBUs
      • 10.14.1.3. V2X RSUs
      • 10.14.1.4. V2X Applications
      • 10.14.1.5. V2X Backend Network Elements
      • 10.14.1.6. V2X Security
    • 10.14.2. Installed Base
      • 10.14.2.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.14.2.2. V2X RSUs
  • 10.15. Latin & Central America
    • 10.15.1. Submarkets
      • 10.15.1.1. V2X Terminal Equipment
      • 10.15.1.2. V2X OBUs
      • 10.15.1.3. V2X RSUs
      • 10.15.1.4. V2X Applications
      • 10.15.1.5. V2X Backend Network Elements
      • 10.15.1.6. V2X Security
    • 10.15.2. Installed Base
      • 10.15.2.1. V2X-Equipped Vehicles
      • 10.15.2.2. V2X RSUs

Chapter 11: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations

  • 11.1. Why is the Market Poised to Grow?
  • 11.2. Geographic Outlook: Which Countries Offer the Highest Growth Potential?
  • 11.3. Review of V2X Engagements Worldwide
    • 11.3.1. North America
      • 11.3.1.1. United States
      • 11.3.1.2. Canada
    • 11.3.2. Asia Pacific
      • 11.3.2.1. Japan
      • 11.3.2.2. China
      • 11.3.2.3. Rest of Asia Pacific
    • 11.3.3. Europe
    • 11.3.4. Middle East & Africa
    • 11.3.5. Latin & Central America
  • 11.4. Spectrum: Are There Any Feasible Choices Beyond 5.9 GHz?
  • 11.5. Evaluating the Practical Benefits of V2X
  • 11.6. The IEEE 802.11p/DSRC vs. C-V2X Debate: Which Technology will Succeed?
    • 11.6.1. The Emergence of Two Opposing V2X Technology Camps
    • 11.6.2. Is There a Clear Winner?
    • 11.6.3. Flexible Approach: Different Technologies in Different Regions
  • 11.7. IEEE 802.11bd: Is There a Future Evolution Path for 802.11p?
  • 11.8. Can C-V2X Minimize the Cost of Roadside Infrastructure Build-Outs?
  • 11.9. Which Applications Are Currently Supported by V2X-Equipped Production Vehicles?
  • 11.10. Growing Focus on Motorcycle-Specific V2X Safety Applications
  • 11.11. Use of V2V Communications to Support Truck Platooning Systems
  • 11.12. Delivering V2X-Type Applications Through Wide-Area Cellular Connectivity
  • 11.13. How Can V2X Facilitate Fully Autonomous Driving?
  • 11.14. Addressing V2X Security Concerns
  • 11.15. Strategic Recommendations
    • 11.15.1. Automotive OEMs
    • 11.15.2. V2X Technology & Solution Providers
    • 11.15.3. Mobile Operators & Cellular Industry Specialists
    • 11.15.4. Road Operators & Other Stakeholders

Chapter 12: Expert Opinion - Interview Transcripts

  • 12.1. Cohda Wireless
  • 12.2. Foresight Autonomous Holdings
  • 12.3. Kapsch TrafficCom
  • 12.4. Nokia
  • 12.5. NXP Semiconductors
  • 12.6. OnBoard Security
  • 12.7. Qualcomm
  • 12.8. Savari

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: The V2X Communications Concept63
  • Figure 2: DSRC-Based V2X Architecture76
  • Figure 3: C-V2X Architecture79
  • Figure 4: Levels of Driving Automation for On-Road Vehicles87
  • Figure 5: Technical & Performance Characteristics of V2X Technologies99
  • Figure 6: PC5 & LTE/NR-Uu Interfaces for C-V2X102
  • Figure 7: Examples of VLC (Visible Light Communications)-Based V2X Application Scenarios104
  • Figure 8: Conceptual Architecture for End-to-End Network Slicing in Mobile Networks112
  • Figure 9: Autonomous Vehicle Generated Data Volume by Sensor (%)172
  • Figure 10: Key Elements of the AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed178
  • Figure 11: CDOT (Colorado Department of Transport)-Panasonic V2X Deployment Program183
  • Figure 12: Daimler's Car-to-X Communication System188
  • Figure 13: HKT's C-V2X Trial Network Architecture202
  • Figure 14: Key Elements of NTT DoCoMo's C-V2X Trial216
  • Figure 15: V2V Applications Supported by Toyota's ITS Connect System in Japan224
  • Figure 16: V2I Applications Supported by Toyota's ITS Connect System in Japan225
  • Figure 17: TRATON's IEEE 802.11p-Based Truck Platooning System240
  • Figure 18: C-V2X Evolution in 3GPP Releases 14, 15 & 16271
  • Figure 19: CEPT Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications297
  • Figure 20: ARC-IT/U.S. National ITS Reference Architecture Structure & Organization388
  • Figure 21: Future Roadmap for V2X Communications: 2019 - 2030395
  • Figure 22: V2X Communications Technology Value Chain398
  • Figure 23: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)742
  • Figure 24: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Submarket: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)743
  • Figure 25: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)743
  • Figure 26: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)744
  • Figure 27: Global C-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)744
  • Figure 28: Global LTE-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)745
  • Figure 29: Global 5G NR-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)745
  • Figure 30: Global IEEE 802.11p Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)746
  • Figure 31: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)746
  • Figure 32: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)747
  • Figure 33: Global V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)747
  • Figure 34: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)748
  • Figure 35: Global V2X OBU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)748
  • Figure 36: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)749
  • Figure 37: Global C-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)749
  • Figure 38: Global C-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)750
  • Figure 39: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)750
  • Figure 40: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)751
  • Figure 41: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)751
  • Figure 42: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)752
  • Figure 43: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)752
  • Figure 44: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)753
  • Figure 45: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)753
  • Figure 46: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)754
  • Figure 47: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)754
  • Figure 48: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)755
  • Figure 49: Global V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)755
  • Figure 50: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)756
  • Figure 51: Global V2X RSU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)756
  • Figure 52: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)757
  • Figure 53: Global C-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)757
  • Figure 54: Global C-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)758
  • Figure 55: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)758
  • Figure 56: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)759
  • Figure 57: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)759
  • Figure 58: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)760
  • Figure 59: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)760
  • Figure 60: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)761
  • Figure 61: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)761
  • Figure 62: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)762
  • Figure 63: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)762
  • Figure 64: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)763
  • Figure 65: Global V2X Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)763
  • Figure 66: Global V2X Application Revenue by Category: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)764
  • Figure 67: Global V2X-Based Road Safety Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)765
  • Figure 68: Global V2X-Based Traffic Management & Optimization Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)765
  • Figure 69: Global V2X-Based Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)766
  • Figure 70: Global V2X-Based Transit & Public Transport Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)766
  • Figure 71: Global V2X-Based Commercial Vehicle Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)767
  • Figure 72: Global V2X-Based Emergency Services & Public Safety Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)767
  • Figure 73: Global V2X-Based Environmental Sustainability Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)768
  • Figure 74: Global V2X-Based Road Weather Management Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)768
  • Figure 75: Global V2X-Based Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)769
  • Figure 76: Global V2X-Based Value-Added Services Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)769
  • Figure 77: Global V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)770
  • Figure 78: Global V2X Security Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)770
  • Figure 79: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)771
  • Figure 80: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)771
  • Figure 81: Global C-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)772
  • Figure 82: Global LTE-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)772
  • Figure 83: Global 5G NR-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)773
  • Figure 84: Global IEEE 802.11p-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)773
  • Figure 85: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)774
  • Figure 86: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)774
  • Figure 87: Global V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)775
  • Figure 88: Global V2X RSU Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)775
  • Figure 89: Global C-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)776
  • Figure 90: Global LTE-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)776
  • Figure 91: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)777
  • Figure 92: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)777
  • Figure 93: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)778
  • Figure 94: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Installed Base: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)778
  • Figure 95: V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)779
  • Figure 96: V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)779
  • Figure 97: V2X OBU Shipments by Region: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)780
  • Figure 98: V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)780
  • Figure 99: V2X RSU Shipments by Region: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)781
  • Figure 100: V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)781
  • Figure 101: V2X Application Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)782
  • Figure 102: V2X Backend Network Element Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)782
  • Figure 103: V2X Security Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)783
  • Figure 104: V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Region: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)783
  • Figure 105: V2X RSU Installed Base by Region: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)784
  • Figure 106: North America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)785
  • Figure 107: North America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)785
  • Figure 108: North America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)786
  • Figure 109: North America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)786
  • Figure 110: North America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)787
  • Figure 111: North America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)787
  • Figure 112: North America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)788
  • Figure 113: North America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)788
  • Figure 114: North America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)789
  • Figure 115: North America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)789
  • Figure 116: North America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)790
  • Figure 117: Asia Pacific V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)791
  • Figure 118: Asia Pacific V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)791
  • Figure 119: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)792
  • Figure 120: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)792
  • Figure 121: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)793
  • Figure 122: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)793
  • Figure 123: Asia Pacific V2X Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)794
  • Figure 124: Asia Pacific V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)794
  • Figure 125: Asia Pacific V2X Security Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)795
  • Figure 126: Asia Pacific V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)795
  • Figure 127: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)796
  • Figure 128: Europe V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)797
  • Figure 129: Europe V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)797
  • Figure 130: Europe V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)798
  • Figure 131: Europe V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)798
  • Figure 132: Europe V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)799
  • Figure 133: Europe V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)799
  • Figure 134: Europe V2X Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)800
  • Figure 135: Europe V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)800
  • Figure 136: Europe V2X Security Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)801
  • Figure 137: Europe V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)801
  • Figure 138: Europe V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)802
  • Figure 139: Middle East & Africa V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)803
  • Figure 140: Middle East & Africa V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)803
  • Figure 141: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)804
  • Figure 142: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)804
  • Figure 143: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)805
  • Figure 144: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)805
  • Figure 145: Middle East & Africa V2X Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)806
  • Figure 146: Middle East & Africa V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)806
  • Figure 147: Middle East & Africa V2X Security Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)807
  • Figure 148: Middle East & Africa V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)807
  • Figure 149: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)808
  • Figure 150: Latin & Central America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)809
  • Figure 151: Latin & Central America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)809
  • Figure 152: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)810
  • Figure 153: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)810
  • Figure 154: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)811
  • Figure 155: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)811
  • Figure 156: Latin & Central America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)812
  • Figure 157: Latin & Central America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)812
  • Figure 158: Latin & Central America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million)813
  • Figure 159: Latin & Central America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)813
  • Figure 160: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)814
  • Figure 161: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 - 2022 (Thousands of Units)815

List of Companies Mentioned:

  • 01LightCom
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
  • 5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
  • 5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
  • 7Layers
  • A1 Telekom Austria Group
  • AASA
  • AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
  • Abu Dhabi Department of Transport
  • ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
  • ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
  • AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
  • Airbiquity
  • Airgain
  • Alibaba Group
  • Allgon
  • Alphabet
  • Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics)
  • Altran
  • Amphenol Corporation
  • Amsterdam Group
  • Anritsu Corporation
  • Apple
  • Applied Information
  • Aptiv (Delphi Automotive)
  • ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
  • Aricent
  • ARM Holdings
  • Arteris IP
  • ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
  • Association of Global Automakers
  • ASTM International
  • Aston Martin Lagonda
  • ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
  • AT&T
  • ATA (American Trucking Associations)
  • ATEC ITS France
  • Athena Group
  • ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
  • Audi
  • Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
  • Autoliv
  • Automatic Labs
  • Autotalks
  • Aventi Intelligent Communication
  • BAIC Group
  • Baidu
  • Battelle
  • BCE (Bell Canada)
  • Beijing BDStar Navigation
  • BJEV
  • BlackBerry
  • BMW Group
  • BMW Motorrad
  • Boréal Bikes
  • Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings)
  • Broadcom
  • Bureau Veritas
  • BYD
  • C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
  • CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
  • CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
  • CalAmp
  • CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
  • Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology)
  • CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
  • CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
  • CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
  • CDOT (Colorado Department of Transportation)
  • CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
  • CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
  • CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
  • CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
  • Certicom
  • CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology)
  • CETECOM
  • CEVA
  • Changan Automobile
  • Chemtronics
  • Chery
  • China Mobile
  • China Telecom
  • China Transinfo
  • China Unicom
  • Chunghwa Telecom
  • CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)
  • CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute)
  • Cisco Systems
  • C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
  • Clarion
  • CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
  • CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
  • CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
  • CNH Industrial
  • Cohda Wireless
  • Commsignia
  • Confidex
  • Connected Signals
  • Continental
  • ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
  • CSTI (Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Japan)
  • Cubic Corporation
  • Cubic Telecom
  • Cybercom Group
  • Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
  • DAF Trucks
  • Daimler
  • Daimler Trucks
  • Danlaw
  • Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group
  • DEKRA
  • Delphi Technologies
  • Denso Corporation
  • Derq
  • Desay SV Automotive
  • DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation)
  • DT (Deutsche Telekom)
  • DT&C
  • Ducati Motor Holding
  • DXC Technology
  • EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
  • Econolite
  • EFKON
  • Ericsson
  • ERTICO - ITS Europe
  • ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
  • ESCRYPT
  • eSSys
  • ETAS
  • ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
  • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
  • Eurofins Scientific
  • European Commission
  • Faraday Future
  • FAW Group
  • FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)
  • Ferrari
  • FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
  • FEV Group
  • Ficosa
  • Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks)
  • Flex
  • FLIR Systems
  • Fluidmesh Networks
  • Ford Motor Company
  • Foresight Autonomous Holdings
  • Forward Electronics
  • Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
  • Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
  • Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
  • Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology)
  • Fujitsu
  • GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group)
  • GCF (Global Certification Forum)
  • Geely Auto
  • Geely Holding
  • Gemalto
  • GENIVI Alliance
  • Genvict
  • GM (General Motors)
  • Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
  • Google
  • Gosuncn Technology Group
  • Great Wall Motor Company
  • Green Hills Software
  • Griiip
  • Groupe PSA
  • Groupe Renault
  • GSMA
  • HAAS Alert
  • Halla Group
  • Hancom MDS
  • Harada Industry
  • HARMAN International
  • Helix Technologies
  • HELLA
  • HERE Technologies
  • Hino Motors
  • Hirschmann Car Communication
  • HiSilicon
  • Hitachi
  • HKT
  • HNTB Corporation
  • Honda Motor Corporation
  • HORIBA MIRA
  • HSAE/Hangsheng Technology
  • Huali/iSmartWays Technology
  • Huawei
  • Hyundai Mobis
  • Hyundai Motor Company
  • Hyundai Motor Group
  • IAV
  • IBM Corporation
  • IDnomic
  • IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
  • IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
  • IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
  • Infineon Technologies
  • INRIX
  • Intel Corporation
  • InterDigital
  • Intertek
  • Invengo
  • IPC (Increment P Corporation)
  • ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
  • ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
  • ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services)
  • Isuzu Motors
  • ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
  • Iteris
  • ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
  • iTRONICS
  • ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
  • ITS Asia-Pacific
  • ITS Australia
  • ITS Canada
  • ITS China
  • ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
  • ITS Info-Communications Forum
  • ITS Japan
  • ITS Korea
  • ITS Singapore
  • ITS Taiwan
  • ITS UK (United Kingdom)
  • ITT (IT Telecom)
  • ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
  • Iveco
  • JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
  • Jin Woo Industrial
  • JISC (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee)
  • JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)
  • JRC (Japan Radio Company)
  • JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
  • Juniper Networks
  • JVCKENWOOD Corporation
  • Kapsch TrafficCom
  • Karamba Security
  • KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards)
  • Kawasaki Heavy Industries
  • KDDI Corporation
  • Keysight Technologies
  • Kia Motors Corporation
  • KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal)
  • KPN
  • KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers)
  • KT Corporation
  • KTM
  • Kymeta Corporation
  • Kyocera Corporation
  • LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia
  • Laird
  • Lear Corporation
  • Leidos
  • Lenovo
  • Leonardo
  • Lesswire
  • LG Electronics
  • LG Innotek
  • Linux Foundation
  • LITE-ON Technology Corporation
  • LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons)
  • LoJack
  • Longsung Technology
  • Lucid Motors
  • Luxoft
  • Lyft
  • Magna International
  • Magneti Marelli
  • Mahindra & Mahindra
  • MAN
  • Mando Corporation
  • Marben
  • Marvell
  • Mazda Motor Corporation
  • McCain
  • McLaren Automotive
  • Mediatek
  • MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association)
  • Mentor
  • MET Labs (MET Laboratories)
  • Michelin
  • Microchip Technology
  • Microsemi Corporation
  • Microsoft Corporation
  • MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
  • MinebeaMitsumi Group
  • MINI
  • Mitsuba Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
  • MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan)
  • Mobile Mark
  • Mobileye
  • Molex
  • MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea)
  • Motorola Mobility
  • Murata Manufacturing
  • NavInfo
  • Navistar
  • Navya
  • Nebula Link
  • NEC Corporation
  • NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
  • Neology
  • Neoway Technology
  • Neusoft Reach
  • NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden)
  • Nexar
  • Nexus Group
  • NGMN Alliance
  • NI (National Instruments)
  • NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)
  • NIO
  • Nissan Motor Corporation
  • NJR (New Japan Radio)
  • Nokia
  • Nordsys
  • Noris Network
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • NXP Semiconductors
  • NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation)
  • Objective Software
  • OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers)
  • Oki Electric Industry
  • Oledcomm
  • OmniAir Consortium
  • OnBoard Security
  • oneM2M
  • OnStar
  • OPPO
  • Orange
  • P3 Group
  • PACCAR
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • Parsons Corporation
  • PCCW
  • Peloton Technology
  • Penta Security Systems
  • Phantom Auto
  • PIARC (World Road Association)
  • Pioneer Corporation
  • POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation)
  • Prettl Group
  • Proximus Group
  • Pulse Electronics
  • pureLiFi
  • Q-Free
  • Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence)
  • QNX Software Systems
  • Qorvo
  • Qosmotec Software Solutions
  • Qualcomm
  • Quectel Wireless Solutions
  • Queensland TMR (Department of Transport and Main Roads)
  • RANIX
  • Redpine Signals
  • Renesas Electronics Corporation
  • Robert Bosch
  • Rohde & Schwarz
  • ROHM Semiconductor
  • Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
  • RoyalTek
  • S.E.A. Datentechnik
  • SAE International
  • SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China)
  • Safety Spectrum Coalition
  • SAIC Motor Corporation
  • Saleen Automotive
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Sanjole
  • Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori
  • Savari
  • Scania
  • SEAT
  • Security Innovation
  • Sensefields
  • Sequans Communications
  • SGS
  • Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free)
  • Siemens
  • Sierra Wireless
  • SIMCom Wireless Solutions
  • Sinclair Broadcast Group
  • SiriusXM
  • SK C&C
  • SK Telecom
  • Skoda Auto
  • Skyworks Solutions
  • Smart Mobile Labs
  • Smarteq Wireless
  • SMARTRAC
  • Socionext
  • SoftBank Group
  • Spirent Communications
  • SsangYong Motor Company
  • STAR Systems International
  • STMicroelectronics
  • sTraffic
  • Subaru Corporation
  • Sumitomo Electric Industries
  • Sunsea AIoT
  • Suzuki Motor Corporation
  • Swarco
  • Synopsys
  • TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards)
  • Taiwan Mobile
  • Taoglas
  • TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company)
  • TASS International
  • Tata AutoComp Systems
  • Tata Elxsi
  • Tata Motors
  • TCA (Transport Certification Australia)
  • TE Connectivity
  • Telefónica Group
  • Telenor Connexion
  • Telenor Group
  • Telit Communications
  • Telstra
  • Telus Corporation
  • Tencent
  • Terranet
  • Tesla
  • THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority)
  • TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
  • TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance)
  • TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
  • TISA (Travelers Information Services Association)
  • Tome Software
  • TomTom
  • Toshiba Corporation
  • TowerJazz
  • Toyota Motor Corporation
  • TransCore
  • Transport Canada
  • TRATON
  • Trek Bicycle Corporation
  • TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
  • TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
  • TTS (Traffic Technology Services)
  • TÜV Rheinland
  • TÜV SÜD
  • U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy)
  • U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
  • U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration)
  • U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration)
  • U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration)
  • U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration)
  • U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
  • Uber Technologies
  • U-Blox
  • UL
  • UMTRI (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute)
  • UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
  • Unex Technology Corporation
  • Unicore Communications
  • Unisoc
  • USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation)
  • Valens
  • Valeo
  • VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies)
  • Vector Informatik
  • Veniam
  • Veoneer
  • Verizon Communications
  • Verizon Connect
  • Viavi Solutions
  • VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium)
  • Vinli
  • Visteon Corporation
  • VLNComm
  • Vodafone Group
  • Volkswagen Group
  • Volvo Cars
  • Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks
  • VT iDirect
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
  • Wanji Technology
  • Waymo
  • Wayties
  • Wieson Technologies
  • WISeKey
  • WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
  • WSP Global
  • WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport)
  • Xiaomi Corporation
  • Xilinx
  • Yamaha Motor Company
  • YoGoKo
  • Yokowo
  • ZF
  • Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International)
  • ZTE

COUNTRIES COVERED:

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua & Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China
  • Cocos Islands
  • Colombia
  • Comoros Islands
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Democratic Rep of Congo (ex-Zaire)
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • East Timor
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Faroe Islands
  • Federated States of Micronesia
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia (ex-Tahiti)
  • French West Indies
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea Republic
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kirghizstan
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kosovo
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macau
  • Macedonia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • North Korea
  • Northern Marianas
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Rwanda
  • Samoa
  • Samoa (American)
  • Sao Tomé & Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • St Kitts & Nevis
  • St Lucia
  • St Vincent & The Grenadines
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks & Caicos Islands
  • UAE
  • Uganda
  • UK
  • Ukraine
  • Uruguay
  • US Virgin Islands
  • USA
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
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