Deployment of Level 3 automated driving is subject to regional regulatory approval. This report analyses the regulatory landscape for the transition from Supervised to Unsupervised-Driving (SAE Level 4-5) to allow deployment of higher levels of autonomy. Since the future is also Secure and Connected, our analysis also provides a regulatory guide on Automotive Cyber Security, V2X (V2V-V2I) & AI.
New Autonomous Driving Regulations and the Legal framework still need to evolve to allow higher vehicle autonomy
As the automotive and technology industries race to higher vehicle levels of Autonomous Driving, the regulatory barrier becomes a determinant of their commercialization strategies. Regulation allowing the introduction of Level 3 from the UNECE will enter into force from January 2021 but the first-ever SAE Level 3-automated driving system in Audis flagship A8 has already been announced but customer availability is subject to regional regulatory approval across the world.
The transition from driver-centric regulation to Automated Driving Systems will allow the shift from Supervised driving to Conditionally & Completely-Unsupervised driving.
There is a growing concern over the lack of harmonization of Autonomous Driving regulation
However, there are inherent differences between the regulatory and legal framework across Europe, the USA, and China. This could adversely affect harmonization of common standards and also delay the adoption of higher levels of vehicle autonomy.
What is the impact of regulation on the deployment strategies of carmakers?
Cyber Security is the new frontier for Automated and Connected Cars
Connected Car security needs to expand from its Physical dimension to cover the Cyber-Physical dimension and from the In-Vehicle-Network to the Internet-of-Things.
While recent "white hack" demonstrations have raised awareness of the risk the automotive industry faces amid the proliferation of Connected Cars, connected devices and V2X, the slow progress of regulation and the absence of common standards restrict the adoption of ACS solutions.
Standardization of the medium for V2V-V2I (DSRC vs cellular) restricts deployment
Even though V2V-V2I communications are not a technical prerequisite for Level 3 or higher, they can enhance safety by helping to overcome the limitations of onboard ADAS sensors, e.g. line-of-sight, weather conditions.
The industry-wide adoption of DSRC vs cellular V2X, which is associated with cost, robustness and financial viability, together with the spectrum-sharing decisions present the key technical challenges for V2V-V2I deployment in key geographies.
What this report delivers
This report focuses on regulation covering Conditionally (Level 3) & Completely-Unsupervised driving (Level 4-5) with or without driver controls, which are in the epicenter of regulatory developments because they will allow (limited to specific use cases or full) hands-off the steering wheel, eyes-off and eventually brain-off.
Furthermore, our analysis, provides a regulatory guide for some other rising issues relevant to Automated Driving, namely securing Automated and Connected Cars, V2X (V2V-V2I) communications and the impact on motor insurance.
Table of Contents
- 1. Key findings
- 2. Overview of regulations and legals by key category examined in this report
1. Autonomous Driving regulation for SAE Lv.3 systems (33 pages)
- 1. Autonomous Driving regulation: the gap between current and future tech vs regulation
- 2. Inherent differences in regulatory process & race to autonomy raise concerns over the lack of harmonization of AD regulation
- 3. How does regulation affect deployment? Favorable geographies for L3 deployment
- 4. UNECE: The amendment of UN R79 vs a Horizontal regulation
- 1. The amendment of the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
- 2. The amendment of UN R79 is the critical step towards self-steering systems that will unlock Level 3-4 deployment
- 3. Automated Lane Keeping Systems (ALKS) regulation for Lv.3
- 4. Three concerns arising from the R79's amendment
- 5. European Autonomous Driving Forecast: L1-L4 car sales up to 2025
- 5. Germany to lead Autonomous Driving deployment in Europe driven by supportive AD framework
- 1. L3 automated driving to become legal in Germany from autumn'17
- 2. Review of Germany's Autonomous Driving Ethical Guidelines
- 6. Great opportunities for the UK to compete as a global hub of AD innovation, testing and deployment
- 1. Overview of the UK's Autonomous Drivingregulatory activity
- 7. Flexible Autonomous Driving regulatory framework in USA but concerns over safety enforcement and harmonisation
- 1. L3 deployment strategy in the U.S based on the regulatory landscape
- 2. The USA has opened up the road to L3-5 with voluntary guidelines: ADS Vision for Safety-v2
- 3. Assessment of USA AD policy: Guidelines (voluntary) vs Regulation (mandatory)
- 4. Action to harmonise state law: LEAD'R Act & SELF-DRIVE Act
- 8. China's regulation for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICVs)
- 1. Status of AD regulation in China & roadmap for ICV standards
- 2. Concerns over the regulatory action needed in China
- 9. Japan's AD regulatory status
- 10. Summary of AD regulatory developments in other leading markets
- 1. Europe
- 2. Asia, Asia-Pacific & North and South America
2. Active Safety Regulation for ADAS Lv.1-2 & NCAP Lv.2 Rating (4 pages)
- 1. The problem with driver distraction, confusion or misuse because of ADAS UX/UI
- 2. UN GSRII mandates Active Safety equipment to tackle driver distraction
- 3. EuroNCAP's 2020 rating for Highway Assist / Lv.2 features
3. Data recording and liability in SAE Level 3 (4 pages)
- 1. Learn why we need Automated Driving-Event Data Recorders
- 2. Regulatory guidance on data recording and storage for L3 is immature
- 3. L3 vehicle automation presents challenges & opportunities for the insurance value chain
4. Automotive Cyber Security regulation in major car markets (12 pages)
- 1. The absence of regulatory mandates restricts the timely adoption and standardization of Automotive Cyber Security solutions
- 2. Automotive Cyber Security regulatory action in the USA
- 3. UN regulation on Automotive Cyber Security: European Union and Japan
- 4. ISO/SAE 21434: a joint standard to harmonise Auto Cyber Security
- 5. What regulatory/legal action is needed to secure Connected Cars?
5. V2X (V2V-V2I) regulation (11 pages)
- 1. How could V2V and V2I communications help towards road safety?
- 2. V2V isn't a technical prerequisite for HAVs but can enhance their safety
- 3. State of the art: V2V & V2I already on the road today
- 4. V2V-V2I regulatory roadmap: UN, USA and China
- 5. Security and privacy in DSRC-based V2V and V2I
- 6. Insights on the regulatory activity for V2X with CTO of Autotalks
- 1. V2X deployment status raises concerns over the lack of harmonization
- 2. Learn how regulatory guidance for V2X will evolve in major markets
- 3. Weighting in the debate between DSRC / ITS-G5 and C-V2X
- 4. Understand which V2X-supported features will come to market first
- 5. Winners from the installation of V2X sensors & infrastructure
6. Regulation for Artificial Intelligence in Automotive (2 pages)
- 1. European Commission's first attempt to regulate "high risk" AI applications