공지 : 도쿄증권거래소 JASDAQ 스탠다드 시장 신규 상장 관련 안내

Global Information
회사소개 | 문의 | 비교리스트

미국의 하드스케이핑 제품 시장 예측

Hardscaping Products (US Market & Forecast)

리서치사 Freedonia Group
발행일 2019년 12월 상품 코드 920807
페이지 정보 영문 243 Pages
가격
US $ 3,900 ₩ 4,341,000 PDF (Single User License) help
1명만 이용할 수 있는 라이선스입니다. PDF 파일은 편집이 되지 않으며, 인쇄는 1회만 허용됩니다. 인쇄물의 이용 범위는 PDF 이용 범위에 준합니다.
US $ 6,500 ₩ 7,235,000 PDF (Corporate License) help
기업 내의 모든 분들(국내, 해외, 100% 자회사)이 이용할 수 있는 라이선스입니다. PDF 내용 편집은 불가능하지만, 요청에 따라 편집 가능한 파일이 제공될 수도 있습니다. 인쇄횟수에 제한은 없으나, 인쇄물의 이용 범위는 PDF 이용 범위에 준합니다. 보고서나 프리젠테이션 자료에 이용할 경우에는 출처를 Freedonia Group이라고 기재한 후 타당한 범위 내에서 이용 가능합니다.

주의 : 본 보고서는 라이선스에 따라 자료 이용 및 인쇄 등에 제약이 있을 수 있습니다. 자세한 내용은 라이선스 설명문( )을 참고하여 주시기 바랍니다.



미국의 하드스케이핑 제품 시장 예측 Hardscaping Products (US Market & Forecast)
발행일 : 2019년 12월 페이지 정보 : 영문 243 Pages

본 상품은 영문 자료로 한글과 영문목차에 불일치하는 내용이 있을 경우 영문을 우선합니다. 정확한 검토를 위해 영문목차를 참고해주시기 바랍니다.

미국의 하드스케이핑 제품 수요는 2023년까지 연평균 5.4% 증가할 것으로 예측되고 있습니다.

미국의 하드스케이핑 제품(Hardscaping Products) 시장에 대해 조사 분석하고, 시장 개요, 수요 데이터(실적. 예측), 산업 구조, 주요 기업 등에 대해 체계적인 정보를 제공하고 있습니다.

제1장 개요

제2장 개요

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 과거의 시장 동향
  • 가격 동향
  • 하드스케이핑 제품의 성장 기회
  • 가뭄과 물 유출
  • 하드스케이핑 제품 제조에 있어서 오염
  • 재활용

제3장 소비자의 고찰

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 주택 소유 여부
  • 주택 야외 공간의 이용 경향
  • 야외 소유 면적
  • 리폼
  • 원예에 대한 선호
  • 조경에 대한 선호
  • 소비자의 하드스케이핑 제품 구입 : 인구 통계별

제4장 하드스케이핑 제품에 영향을 미치는 주요 동향

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 야외 생활
  • 설계의 동향
  • 주요 인구 통계
  • 환경 동향
  • DIY vs. DIFM 동향

제5장 소매 전략

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 소매 수준의 하드스케이핑 제품 판매
  • 마케팅 및 광고
  • 소매 유통 채널

제6장 제품

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 수요 예측 : 제품별
  • 재료에서의 설계 동향
  • 하드스케이핑 재료에서의 신제품 소개
  • 콘크리트
  • 판석, 타일, 옥석
  • 나무
  • 점토 벽돌
  • 골재
  • 도자기 연석, 포장재, 타일

제7장 용도

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 수요 : 용도별
  • 테라스
  • 보도
  • 벽면
  • 연석 기타

제8장 주택용 시장

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 주택용 하드스케이핑 제품
  • 주택용 하드스케이핑 용도
  • 주택용 하드스케이핑 프로젝트 유형

제9장 비주택용 시장

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 수요 : 시장별
  • 상업시설용 시장
  • 공원/골프장/기타 시장

제10장 최종사용자

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 수요 : 최종사용자별
  • 전문 최종사용자
  • 소비자/DIY 최종사용자

제11장 지역

  • 주요 조사결과
  • 수요 : 지역별
  • 북동부
  • 중서부
  • 남부
  • 서부

제12장 산업 구조

  • 주요 조사결과와 산업 구성
  • 시장 점유율
  • 업계 재편
  • 경쟁 전략
  • 유통채널
  • 시장 진출기업 리스트

제13장 부록

LSH 20.01.21

List of Tables

2. Overview

  • Table 2-1: Hardscaping Products Market, 2008 -- 2018
  • Table 2-2: Selected Hardscaping Product Prices, 2008 -- 2023 (dollars per ton & dollars per unit)
  • Table 2-3: Growth Opportunities in Hardscaping Products

3. Consumer Insights

  • Table 3-1: Homeownership & Rental Trends in the US, 2009 -- 2019 (percent of adults)
  • Table 3-2: Homeownership & Rental Trends in the US by Annual Household Income, 2009 -- 2019 (percent of adults)
  • Table 3-3: Homeownership & Rental Trends in the US by Age Group, 2009 -- 2019 (percent of adults)
  • Table 3-4: Percent of Households That Own Land by Size of Lot, 2019 (percent of households)
  • Table 3-5: Remodeling Done in the Last 12 Months vs. Planned in the Next 12 Months, 2009 -- 2019 (percent of households)
  • Table 3-6: Who Completed Home Remodeling in the Last 12 Months, 2009 -- 2019 (percent of households)
  • Table 3-7: Hardscaping Product Purchases in the Last 12 Months by Age Group, Race, Gender, Home Type, Marital Status, & Household Income Bracket, Area, & US Region, 2019 (% of respondents)

5. Retail Strategies

  • Table 5-1: Hardscaping Product Retail Sales by Type, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 5-2: Consumer Retail Shopping Patterns by Gender & Age Group, 2019: Among Consumers Who Purchased Hardscaping in the Past 12 Months, Where Did You Primarily Shop for These Items? (percent)
  • Table 5-3: Consumer Retail Shopping Patterns by Gender & Age Group, 2019: Among Consumers Who Purchased Hardscaping in the Past 12 Months, Where Did You Also Shop for These Items? (percent)

6. Products

  • Table 6-1: Hardscape Product Demand by Material, Market, & End User, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 6-2: Concrete Hardscape Demand by Type, Landscaping Application, & Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 6-3: Stone Paver, Tile, & Boulder Demand by Type, Landscaping Application, & Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 6-4: Key Manufacturers of Stone Pavers, Tiles, & Boulders
  • Table 6-5: Wood Demand by Landscaping Application & Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 6-6: Clay Brick Demand by Landscaping Application & Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 6-7: Aggregates Demand by Type, Landscaping Application, & Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 6-8: Porcelain & Other Edging, Paver, & Tile Demand by Landscaping Application & Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)

7. Applications

  • Table 7-1: Hardscape Product Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-2: Patio Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-3: Patio Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-4: Walkway Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-5: Walkway Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-6: Wall Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-7: Wall Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-8: Edging & Other Hardscape Application Demand by Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 7-9: Edging & Other Hardscape Application Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)

8. Residential Markets

  • Table 8-1: Residential Hardscape Demand by Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-2: Residential Concrete Demand by Type & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-3: Residential Stone Paver, Tile, & Boulder Demand by Type & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-4: Residential Wood Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-5: Residential Clay Brick Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-6: Residential Aggregate Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-7: Residential Porcelain & Other Edging, Paver, & Tile Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-8: Residential Hardscaping Product Demand by Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-9: Residential Patio Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-10: Residential Walkway Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-11: Residential Wall Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-12: Residential Edging & Other Landscaping Application Demand by Hardscaping Product, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 8-13: Residential Hardscaping Demand by Project Type, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)

9. Nonresidential Markets

  • Table 9-1: Nonresidential Hardscaping Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-2: Commercial Hardscaping Demand by Product & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-3: Commercial Concrete Demand by Type & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-4: Commercial Stone Paver, Tile, & Boulder Demand by Type & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-5: Commercial Wood Hardscaping Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-6: Commercial Clay Brick Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-7: Commercial Aggregates Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-8: Commercial Porcelain & Other Edging, Paver, & Tile Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-9: Park, Golf Course, & Other Markets Hardscaping Demand by Product & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-10: Park, Golf Course, & Other Markets: Concrete Demand by Type & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-11: Park, Golf Course, & Other Markets: Stone Paver, Tile, & Boulder Demand by Type & Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-12: Park, Golf Course, & Other Market Wood Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-13: Park, Golf Course, & Other Market Clay Brick Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-14: Park, Golf Course, & Other Markets: Aggregates Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 9-15: Park, Golf Course, & Other Markets: Porcelain & Other Edging, Paver, & Tile Demand by Landscaping Application, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)

10. End Users

  • Table 10-1: Hardscape Product Demand by End User, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)

11. Regions

  • Table 11-1: Hardscaping Product Demand by Region, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 11-2: Northeast Hardscaping Product Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 11-3: Midwest Hardscaping Product Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 11-4: South Hardscaping Product Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)
  • Table 11-5: West Hardscaping Product Demand by Market, 2008 -- 2023 (million dollars)

12. Industry Structure

  • Table 12-1: US Landscaping Product Sales by Company, 2018 (million dollars)
  • Table 12-2: Selected Mergers & Acquisitions

13. Appendix

  • Table 13-1: Study Scope: US Geographic Regions & Subregions
  • Table 13-2: Relevant Industry Codes
  • Table 13-3: Relevant HS Codes
  • Table 13-4: Abbreviations & Acronyms Used in Study
  • Table 13-5: Macroeconomic Indicators, 2008 -- 2023 (billion 2012 dollars & billion dollars)
  • Table 13-6: Population & Households, 2008 -- 2023 (million persons)
  • Table 13-7: Personal Consumption Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars & billion 2012 dollars)
  • Table 13-8: Building Construction Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Table 13-9: Residential Building Construction Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Table 13-10: Residential Improvement & Repair Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Table 13-11: Housing Completions, 2008 -- 2023 (thousand units)
  • Table 13-12: Housing Stock by Type, 2008 -- 2023 (million units)
  • Table 13-13: Commercial Building Construction Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Table 13-14: Commercial Building Improvement & Repair Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Table 13-15: Nonbuilding Construction Expenditures, 2008 -- 2023 (billion dollars)

List of Figures

1. Executive Summary

  • Figure 1-1: Key Trends in the US Hardscaping Products Market

2. Overview

  • Figure 2-1: Key Trends in the Hardscaping Products Market

3. Consumer Insights

  • Figure 3-1: Key Consumer Insights in the Hardscaping Products Market
  • Figure 3-2: Homeownership & Rental Trends in the US by Age Group, 2009 -- 2019 (percent of adults)
  • Figure 3-3: Presence of Outdoor Space at Home, 2019 (percent)
  • Figure 3-4: Gardening Preferences of Consumers, 2019
  • Figure 3-5: Landscaping Preferences of Consumers, 2019

4. Major Trends Affecting Hardscaping Products

  • Figure 4-1: Key Trends Affecting Hardscaping Products
  • Figure 4-2: Consumers Who Enjoy Gardening by Age Bracket, 2019
  • Figure 4-3: Urban Dwellers Percent of Total US Population, 2000 -- 2023

5. Retail Strategies

  • Figure 5-1: Key Retail Trends for Hardscaping Products
  • Figure 5-2: Hardscaping Retail Sales: Share by Product, 2018 (billion dollars)
  • Figure 5-3: Consumer Retail Shopping Patterns, 2019: Among Consumers Who Purchased Hardscaping in the Past 12 Months, Where Did You Primarily Shop for These Items? (percent)
  • Figure 5-4: Consumer Retail Shopping Patterns, 2019: Among Consumers Who Purchased Hardscaping in the Past 12 Months, Where Did You Also Shop for These Items? (percent)

6. Products

  • Figure 6-1: Hardscaping Products
  • Figure 6-2: Hardscape Product Demand Growth by Material, 2018 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Figure 6-3: Hardscape Materials: Product Examples
  • Figure 6-4: Product Example: Rosetta Hardscapes Miros Slabs
  • Figure 6-5: Product Example: Natural Paving's Inspired by Nature Hardscape Collection
  • Figure 6-6: Product Example: Techo-Bloc Aquastorm Permeable Pavers
  • Figure 6-7: Product Examples: Concrete Pavers with Natural Appearance
  • Figure 6-8: Product Example: Belgard Verona Porcelain Pavers
  • Figure 6-9: Product Example: Mirage Granito Ceramico EVO_2/e
  • Figure 6-10: Product Example: Daltile's "Indoor-To-Outdoor Transitional Living" Trend
  • Figure 6-11: Product Example: MS International Seamless Sanctuary
  • Figure 6-12: Product Example: Techo-Bloc HD2 Technology
  • Figure 6-13: Product Example: EP Henry ColorTech Pavers
  • Figure 6-14: Product Example: Belgard Permeable Pavers
  • Figure 6-15: Product Example: Sagamore Ready Mix's EnviroCrete Pervious Ready-Mix Concrete
  • Figure 6-16: Product Example: Coyote Landscape Products PerfEdge Steel Landscape Edging
  • Figure 6-17: Product Example: EP Henry ECO Bristol Stone Pavers
  • Figure 6-18: Product Example: AZEK Paving Grid System
  • Figure 6-19: Product Example: Highland Stone 2.0 Freestanding Wall System
  • Figure 6-20: Product Example: Norstone Rock Panels
  • Figure 6-21: Concrete Demand Growth by Type, 2018 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Figure 6-22: Product Example: Tectura Designs' Comparison of Face-Mix & Through- Mix Pavers
  • Figure 6-23: Stone Paver, Tile, & Boulder Demand Growth by Type, 2018 -- 2023 (million dollars)

7. Applications

  • Figure 7-1: Key Trends in Hardscaping Applications
  • Figure 7-2: Hardscape Product Demand Growth by Landscaping Application, 2018 -- 2023 (billion dollars)
  • Figure 7-3: Hardscape Applications: Examples
  • Figure 7-4: Patio Demand Growth by Hardscaping Product, 2018 -- 2023 (million dollars)

8. Residential Markets

  • Figure 8-1: Residential Market Trends in Hardscaping Products

9. Nonresidential Markets

  • Figure 9-1: Nonresidential Market Trends in Hardscaping Products

10. End Users

  • Figure 10-1: Key Trends in Hardscaping by End Users
  • Figure 10-2: Hardscaping Product Demand Share: Professional vs. Consumer/DIY, 2008 -- 2018

11. Regions

  • Figure 11-1: Key Trends in Regional Hardscaping Product Markets

12. Industry Structure

  • Figure 12-1: Hardscape Products Market Share by Company, 2018 (billion dollars)
  • Figure 12-2: US Hardscaping Products Market: Leading Supplier
  • Figure 12-3: US Hardscaping Products Market: Second Leading Supplier
  • Figure 12-4: US Hardscaping Products Market: Third Leading Supplier
  • Figure 12-5: US Hardscaping Products Market: Fourth Leading Supplier
  • Figure 12-6: US Hardscaping Products Market: Fifth Leading Supplier

13. Appendix

  • Figure 13-1: Annual Growth in Real GDP, 2000 -- 2018, Compared to 1980 -- 2005 Average (percent)
  • Figure 13-2: Annual Population Growth, 2003 -- 2018 (percent)
  • Figure 13-3: Housing Stock by Year of Construction, 2018 (percent)

US demand for hardscaping products is expected to increase an average of 5.4% per year through 2023. Gains will be supported by macro-level trends (e.g., healthy economic outlook and continuing gains in construction activity and population) as well as by weather and climate conditions. Further growth will come from the continued popularity of outdoor living, which involves the use of ever more elaborately designed outdoor areas for relaxing, entertaining, cooking, dining, and other activities.

‘Hardscaping Products’ addresses the following questions and more.

  • How will sales of hardscaping products be affected by greater environmental consciousness and regulations?
  • How will demographic shifts influence sales of hardscaping products?
  • Which features are most desired for various hardscaping materials across applications and markets?

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Overview

  • Key Findings
  • Historical Market Trends
  • Pricing Trends
  • Hardscaping Product Growth Opportunities
  • Drought & Water Runoff
  • Pollution in the Manufacture of Hardscaping Products (Clay Bricks & Concrete)
  • Recycling

3. Consumer Insights

  • Key Findings
  • Homeownership
    • Homeownership vs. Home Rental
    • Homeownership by Household Annual Income
    • Homeownership by Age Group
  • Prevalence of Outdoor Space at Home
  • Size of Owned Land Around Home
  • Home Improvement
  • Gardening Preferences
  • Landscaping Preferences
  • Consumer Hardscaping Purchases by Selected Demographics

4. Major Trends Affecting Hardscaping Products

  • Key Findings
  • Outdoor Living
  • Design Trends
  • Key Demographics
    • Millennials & Baby Boomers
    • Urbanites
  • Environmental Trends
    • Climatic Issues & Impact on Landscaping
    • Permeable Pavers
  • DIY vs. DIFM Trends

5. Retail Strategies

  • Key Findings
  • Retail Level Hardscaping Product Sales
  • Marketing & Advertising: Telling the Story & Reaching the Client
    • Strategies & Media Use
    • Sustainability & Eco-Friendliness
    • Product Origin
    • Digital Media
  • Retail Distribution Channels: Where & How
    • Sales by Primary & Secondary Retail Outlet
    • Home Centers
    • Mass Merchandisers
    • Garden Centers
    • Internet
    • Other Retail Distributors

6. Products

  • Key Findings
  • Demand Forecast by Product
  • Design Trends in Materials
    • Contemporary & Natural Aesthetics
    • Porcelain Pavers & Tiles
    • Unify Indoor & Outdoor Spaces
  • New Product Introductions in Hardscaping Materials
    • Durability
    • Environmentally Friendly
    • Ease & Convenience
  • Concrete
    • Demand Forecast by Type, Application, & Market
    • Concrete Pavers: Face-Mix vs. Through-Mix
    • Ready-Mix Concrete
    • Concrete Blocks, Bricks, & Other Products
    • Suppliers
  • Stone Pavers, Tiles, & Boulders
    • Demand Forecast by Type, Application, & Market
    • Natural Stone
    • Manufactured (Faux) Stone
    • Suppliers
  • Wood
    • Demand by Application & Market
    • Suppliers
  • Clay Brick
    • Demand by Application & Market
    • Suppliers
  • Aggregates
    • Demand by Application & Market
    • Suppliers
  • Porcelain & Other Edging, Pavers, & Tiles
    • Demand by Application & Market
    • Suppliers

7. Applications

  • Key Findings
  • Demand by Application
  • Patios
    • Patio Demand by Product
    • Patio Demand by Market
  • Walkways
    • Walkway Demand by Product
    • Walkway Demand by Market
  • Walls
    • Wall Demand by Product
    • Wall Demand by Market
  • Edging & Other Applications
    • Edging & Other Application Demand by Product
    • Edging & Other Hardscape Application Demand by Market

8. Residential Markets

  • Key Findings
  • Residential Hardscape Products
    • Demand by Product
    • Concrete
    • Stone Pavers, Tiles, & Boulders
    • Wood
    • Clay Brick
    • Aggregates
    • Porcelain & Other Edging, Pavers, & Tiles
  • Residential Hardscape Applications
    • Demand by Application
    • Patios
    • Walkways
    • Walls
    • Edging & Other Applications
  • Residential Hardscaping Project Types
    • Demand by Project Type (New Installation vs. Renovation & Repair)
    • New Installations
    • Renovations & Repairs

9. Nonresidential Markets

  • Key Findings
  • Demand by Market
  • Commercial Market
    • Demand by Product & Application
    • Concrete
    • Stone Pavers, Tiles, & Boulders
    • Wood
    • Clay Brick
    • Aggregates
    • Porcelain & Other Edging, Pavers, & Tiles
  • Parks, Golf Course, & Other Markets
    • Demand by Product & Application
    • Concrete
    • Stone Paver, Tile, & Boulder
    • Wood
    • Clay Brick
    • Aggregates
    • Porcelain & Other Edging, Pavers, & Tiles

10. End Users

  • Key Findings
  • Demand by End User
  • Professional End Users
  • Consumer/DIY End Users

11. Regions

  • Key Findings
  • Demand by Region
  • Northeast
  • Midwest
  • South
  • West

12. Industry Structure

  • Key Findings & Industry Composition
  • Market Share
  • Industry Restructuring
  • Competitive Strategies
  • Distribution Channels
  • List of Industry Participants
  • 13. Appendix
  • Scope
  • Definitions
  • Abbreviations
  • Freedonia Methodology
  • Study-Specific Methodology
  • Sources
  • Associations & Agencies
  • Related Studies & Reports
  • Macroeconomic Assumptions
    • Economic Environment
    • Demographic Trends
    • Consumer Spending
    • Building Construction
    • Residential Building Construction
    • Residential Improvements & Repairs
    • Housing Completions
    • Housing Stock
    • Commercial Building Construction
    • Commercial Building Improvements & Repairs
    • Nonbuilding Construction Expenditures
Back to Top
전화 문의
F A Q