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연료전지 전기자동차(2022-2042년)

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042

리서치사 IDTechEx Ltd.
발행일 2021년 10월 상품 코드 1031452
페이지 정보 영문 413 Slides
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연료전지 전기자동차(2022-2042년) Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042
발행일 : 2021년 10월 페이지 정보 : 영문 413 Slides

본 상품은 영문 자료로 한글과 영문목차에 불일치하는 내용이 있을 경우 영문을 우선합니다. 정확한 검토를 위해 영문목차를 참고해주시기 바랍니다.

연료전지 전기 자동차는 2042년까지 1,600억 달러 규모의 시장을 형성합니다.

IDTechEx의 "연료전지 전기자동차 (2022-2042년)" 보고서는 승용차, 경상용차, 트럭 및 시내버스 시장을 위한 온로드 연료전지 차량 개발 현황을 조사하였습니다. 이 보고서는 2042년까지의 연료전지 차량의 미래에 대한 IDTechEx의 독립적인 전망과 함께 이러한 서로 다른 운송 애플리케이션에서 연료전지 배치의 기술적, 경제적 측면을 논의합니다.

목차

1. 주요 요약

  • 1.1. 보고서 개요
  • 1.2. 연료 전지 차량이란?
  • 1.3. 연료 전지 에너지 밀도 장점
  • 1.4. 수소 생산 방법
  • 1.5. 수송용 수소
  • 1.6. 그린 H2 연료 전지 차량
  • 1.7. BEV 대비 FCEV 범위 우위의 현실
  • 1.8. 무배출 중·중량트럭의 범위
  • 1.9. 도전과제: 녹색 수소 비용 절감
  • 1.10. 20년 이상된 연료전지 승용차의 시제품
  • 1.11. 생산중인 연료전지 자동차
  • 1.12. FCEV 자동차 시장 점유율 도요타, 현대, 혼다, 2016-2020
  • 1.13. 연료 전지 LCV
  • 1.14. 스텔란티스 연료전지 LCV
  • 1.15. 중량 트럭: BEV or 연료 전지?
  • 1.16. 파워트레인 및 범위
  • 1.17. 중량 차량 연료 전지 시스템 비용
  • 1.18. FC-버스 개발의 30년
  • 1.19. 버스: FCEV와 BEV 둘 다 역할을 할 것인가?
  • 1.20. FCEV 승용차 글로벌 판매 전망 2018-2042
  • 1.21. 지역별 FCEV LCV 판매 예측 2018-2042
  • 1.22. FCEV 지역별 대형 트럭 판매 예측 2018-2042
  • 1.23. FCEV 지역별 시내버스 판매 전망 2018-2042
  • 1.24. FCEV(LCV, M&HDT, 버스, 자동차) 연료전지 수요(MW)
  • 1.25. FCEV(LCV, M&HDT, 버스, 자동차) 시장 규모 ($USD Billion)

2. 소개

3. 연료 전지: 기술 개요

4. 수소 세대

5. 연료 전지 승용차

6. 연료 전지 승용차 생산기업

7. 연료 전지 승용차의 장애 요인

8. 연료 전지 LCV

9. 연료 전지 트럭

10. 연료 전지 버스

11. 수소 주입

12. FCEV 글로벌 시장 예측(LCV, M&HDT, City-Bus, Car)

13. FC-CARS 시장 예측

14. FC-LCV 시장 예측

15. FC-TRUCKS 시장 예측

16. FC-BUSUS 시장 예측

JYH 21.10.12

Title:
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042
Analysis of fuel cell vehicle deployment, technology and the global outlook for fuel cell passenger cars, light commercial vehicles, trucks, and buses. FCEV unit sales, fuel cell demand, battery demand and market value forecasts.

Fuel cell electric vehicles a $160 billion dollar market by 2042.

IDTechEx's report "Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042" explores the current state of on-road fuel cell vehicle development for passenger car, light commercial vehicle, truck, and city bus markets. The report discusses the technical and economic aspects of fuel cell deployment in these different transport applications with IDTechEx's independent outlook for the future of fuel cell vehicles to 2042.

In response to the threat posed by climate change and poor urban air quality many countries are tightening emissions regulation to reduce the impact from on-road transportation. This legislation is forcing automotive OEMs away from traditional combustion engines and toward all-electric and fuel cell electric powertrains.

Whilst the market for pure battery-electric vehicles (BEV) is beginning to take-off in many transport segments, the energy density limits of lithium-ion batteries means that the range of battery electric vehicles is restricted by both the maximum weight of batteries that can be carried by a vehicle and the available space for batteries within that vehicle. Fuel cell technologies offer automakers an avenue to greater vehicle range, whilst still delivering the crucial reduction in on-road exhaust emissions.

Utilising a fuel cell, which generates electricity through a chemical reaction between hydrogen (stored as fuel in pressurised tanks) and oxygen (from purified intake air), fuel cell systems can deliver a greater energy density than current battery electric powertrains. This improved energy density enables greater vehicle range between fuelling than can be delivered by battery electric vehicles.

A further significant benefit of fuel cell systems is that the refuelling of hydrogen tanks is similar to refuelling conventional combustion engine vehicles (a few minutes) and is considerably faster than comparatively slow electric charging, which can take several hours. The range and refuelling advantage of FCEV could be particularly critical for the viability of zero-emission heavy-duty truck and bus operations, where there is a high daily range requirement, long operating hours, and the need for operational flexibility.

Fuel Cell Passenger Cars

The deployment of fuel cells within vehicles is not a new concept. Major OEMs including Toyota, Ford, Honda, GM, Hyundai, Volkswagen, Daimler, and BMW have invested large sums over the past 30-years in advancing the technology. For passenger cars, a huge amount of effort and expense has gone into developing fuel cells, but the culmination of these efforts is the reality that in 2021 only two major OEMs, Toyota and Hyundai, have FCEV cars in production and fewer than 10,000 FCEV were sold in 2020. Battery electric vehicles, whose development began in earnest at a similar time to FCEV, sold more than 3 million units in 2020.

Top 3 FCEV Car Manufacturers Market Share

               Source: IDTechEx "Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042"

Hydrogen Generation

Fuel cell vehicle deployment faces considerable challenges, including decreasing the cost of fuel cell system components to reduce the upfront cost of fuel cell vehicles, and rolling out sufficient hydrogen refuelling infrastructure to make driving a FCEV workable. Also essential will be the availability of cheap 'green' hydrogen, produced by the electrolysis of water using renewable electricity, which analysis in the new IDTechEx report highlights will be vital to FCEVs delivering the environmental credentials on which they are being sold.

The most developed, cheapest, and scalable method currently available for hydrogen generation is steam methane (natural gas) reforming. H2 produced by this method is known as "grey hydrogen". This process however produces a significant volume of CO2, meaning the well-to-wheel carbon footprint of FCEV using grey hydrogen would offer a very limited emission reduction potential over modern combustion engine vehicles. This IDTechEx report looks at carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, which will be required to greatly reduce the carbon emission from SMR, to produce so called "blue hydrogen". CCS has yet to be demonstrated a scale, though is attracting considerable interest from major energy firms. The ideal pathway would be to generate "green hydrogen" using electricity from renewable sources including wind, solar and hydro, splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis, however, the cost effectiveness of this method therefore depends on utilising cheap renewable electricity, which is not yet widely available.

IDTechEx Estimate of gCO2/km Emission for
Different Truck Powertrains

*The advantage for green hydrogen in 2030 is because it is assumed to be produced from 100% renewable electricity whereas the 2030 BEV uses a grid average intensity.

Source: IDTechEx "Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042".

Whilst the challenges facing fuel cell vehicles are considerable, many governments around the world are now offering an unprecedented level of support for the development of zero-emission vehicles, with several major economies including Japan, Korea, Germany and China backing efforts for an extensive transformation away from fossil fuels to a wider hydrogen economy. With the backing of governments, increasing interest from large multinational energy firms who have recognised they need a strategy to transition to cleaner fuels, and strong commitment being shown by several major OEMs (though chiefly Toyota and Hyundai), there is currently a clear concerted effort to push FCEV development and deployment.

Fuel Cell Trucks and Buses

Of particular focus in the IDTechEx report are the heavy-duty truck and bus markets, which operate demanding applications that require long daily range, have constrained refuelling time availability, and require operational flexibility. Whilst this segment of the automotive industry is also facing tightening legislative requirements to reduce exhaust emissions, BEV solutions are potentially less feasible in these applications, with the weight and cost of the lithium-ion battery required to deliver the daily-duty cycle prohibitive. These applications therefore offer a market segment where fuel cell vehicles could offer the only viable zero-emission solution. The new report looks in detail at the challenge of employing fuel cell commercial vehicles, including CAPEX costs, the influence of H2 fuel cost on viability, and examples from current FCEV deployments.

This report and it's granular market forecasts will be of interest to companies across the automotive value chain: fuel cell and electrolyser manufacturers, battery and electric motor manufacturers, hydrogen refuelling infrastructure developers, parts and systems suppliers, along with companies in the energy sector, government agencies, research organisations, and companies or individuals looking to invest in a technology that has the potential to be a vital element in efforts to decarbonise the transportation sector.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Report Overview
  • 1.2. What is a Fuel Cell Vehicle?
  • 1.3. Fuel Cell Energy Density Advantage
  • 1.4. Hydrogen Production Methods
  • 1.5. Hydrogen for Transport
  • 1.6. Must be Green H2 for Fuel Cell Vehicles to be 'Green'
  • 1.7. Reality of the FCEV Range Advantage over BEV
  • 1.8. Range of Zero Emission Medium and Heavy Trucks
  • 1.9. The Challenge: Green Hydrogen Cost Reduction
  • 1.10. 20+ Years of Fuel Cell Passenger Car Prototypes
  • 1.11. Fuel Cell Cars in Production
  • 1.12. FCEV Car Market Share Toyota, Hyundai, Honda, 2016-2020
  • 1.13. Fuel Cell LCVs
  • 1.14. Stellantis Launch Fuel Cell LCVs
  • 1.15. Heavy-Duty Trucks: BEV or Fuel Cell?
  • 1.16. Powertrain and Range
  • 1.17. Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Cell System Costs
  • 1.18. 30 years of FC-Bus Development
  • 1.19. Buses: Both FCEV and BEV to have a Role?
  • 1.20. FCEV Passenger Car Global Sales Forecast 2018-2042
  • 1.21. FCEV LCV Sales Forecast by Region 2018-2042
  • 1.22. FCEV Heavy-Duty Truck Sales Forecast by Region 2018-2042
  • 1.23. FCEV City Bus Sales Forecast by Region 2018-2042
  • 1.24. FCEV (LCV, M&HDT, Bus, Car) Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 1.25. FCEV (LCV, M&HDT, Bus, Car) Market Size ($USD Billion)

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. The Core Driver for Transport Decarbonization
  • 2.2. Transport a Major Source of Greenhouse Gas Emission
  • 2.3. Transport GHG Emissions: China, US & Europe
  • 2.4. EU27+UK GHG Emission From Road Transport
  • 2.5. US GHG Emission From Road Transport
  • 2.6. Japan GHG Emission From Road Transport
  • 2.7. Urban Air Quality
  • 2.8. Poor Air Quality Causes Premature Deaths
  • 2.9. Fossil Fuel Bans: Explained
  • 2.10. Official or Legislated Fossil Fuel Bans (National)
  • 2.11. Unofficial, Drafted or Proposed Fossil Fuel Bans (National)
  • 2.12. Fossil Fuel Bans (Cities)
  • 2.13. Replacement for ICE - Zero Emission Electric Vehicles
  • 2.14. What is a Fuel Cell Vehicle?
  • 2.15. Attraction of Fuel Cell Vehicles
  • 2.16. Transport Applications for Fuel Cells
  • 2.17. Toyota Mobility Roadmap
  • 2.18. Why is the Focus on Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles?
  • 2.19. Fuel Cell Vehicles a as Part of a Hydrogen Economy
  • 2.20. 30 Years of Fuel Cell Vehicle Prototypes
  • 2.21. Deployment Barriers for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
  • 2.22. A Kaleidoscope of Hydrogen Colours
  • 2.23. The Fundamental Issue of Efficiency
  • 2.24. Challenges for Fuel Cells
  • 2.25. The Challenge: Green Hydrogen Cost Reduction
  • 2.26. Fuel Cost per Mile: FCEV, BEV, internal-combustion
  • 2.27. Volume Production to Decrease FCEV Cost
  • 2.28. Zero Emission Vehicles: BEV Booming
  • 2.29. FCEV Competing with Improving Li-ion Batteries

3. FUEL CELLS: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

  • 3.1. Introduction to Fuel Cells
  • 3.2. What is a Fuel Cell?
  • 3.3. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
  • 3.4. Fuel Cells Technologies Overview
  • 3.5. PEMFC Assembly and Materials
  • 3.6. Proton Exchange Membrane - Polymer Electrolyte
  • 3.7. Proton Exchange Membrane - Polymer Electrolyte
  • 3.8. Electrode Structure and the Three-Phase Boundary
  • 3.9. Bipolar Plates (BPP)
  • 3.10. Bipolar Plate Materials
  • 3.11. Fuel Cell Water Management
  • 3.12. PEMFC Cooling Methods
  • 3.13. Fuels Composition
  • 3.14. Great Volumes Required to Reduce Costs
  • 3.15. PEMFC Cost Break Down
  • 3.16. Fuel Cell System Costs
  • 3.17. High Temperature PEMFC (high temperature-PEMFC)
  • 3.18. PEMFC Market Players
  • 3.19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Overview
  • 3.20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Electrolyte
  • 3.21. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Sealing & Connecting Materials
  • 3.22. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Cell Design
  • 3.23. SOFC Market

4. HYDROGEN GENERATION

  • 4.1. Hydrogen: The Energy Carrier
  • 4.2. Hydrogen Production Methods
  • 4.3. A Kaleidoscope of Hydrogen Colours
  • 4.4. H2 Production Methods: Steam Reforming (SMR)
  • 4.5. H2 Production Methods: Autothermal Reforming (ATR)
  • 4.6. H2 Production Methods: Electrolysis
  • 4.7. Electrolyser Overview
  • 4.8. AEL on the market
  • 4.9. PEMEL on the market
  • 4.10. SOEL companies
  • 4.11. Sources of Hydrogen
  • 4.12. Hydrogen Production Methods
  • 4.13. Pathway to Green Hydrogen via Blue
  • 4.14. BP Teesside Blue Hydrogen Project
  • 4.15. Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)
  • 4.16. Point source carbon capture - overview
  • 4.17. Post-combustion CO2 capture
  • 4.18. Methods of CO2 separation
  • 4.19. The costs of carbon capture
  • 4.20. Global status of CCUS
  • 4.21. Carbon capture capacity if all current projects begin or remain in operation
  • 4.22. EOR: an on-ramp for CCS

5. FUEL CELL PASSENGER CARS

  • 5.1. Outlook for Fuel Cell Passenger Cars
  • 5.2. 20+ Years of Fuel Cell Passenger Car Prototypes
  • 5.3. Fuel Cell Passenger Cars
  • 5.4. Fuel Cell Passenger Car Components
  • 5.5. Status of Automotive Fuel Cell Systems and Stacks
  • 5.6. FCEV Cars Operating Modes
  • 5.7. Fuel Cell Cars in Production
  • 5.8. Growth of Fuel Cell Passenger Cars
  • 5.9. FCEV Car Market Share Toyota, Hyundai, Honda, 2016-2020
  • 5.10. Very Limited FC-Car Model Choice

6. FUEL CELL PASSENGER CAR PLAYERS

  • 6.1. Toyota Fuel Cell Passenger Cars History
  • 6.2. Toyota Motor Europe
  • 6.3. Toyota Mirai 1st Gen 2015
  • 6.4. Toyota Mirai 1st Gen Components
  • 6.5. Toyota Mirai 2nd Generation
  • 6.6. Toyota Mirai 2nd Gen. Significant Upgrades
  • 6.7. Toyota Mirai 2nd Gen H2 Safety Measures
  • 6.8. Purchase Incentives
  • 6.9. Toyota Mirai Sales 2014-2021
  • 6.10. Decreasing CAPEX of FCEV
  • 6.11. Toyota FCEV Following the Prius Pathway
  • 6.12. Toyota Mirai Demonstrator Fleets
  • 6.13. Toyota FCEV Goals
  • 6.14. Hyundai Fuel Cell Passenger Car History
  • 6.15. Hyundai FCEV Improvements
  • 6.16. Hyundai NEXO SUV
  • 6.17. Hyundai NEXO Components
  • 6.18. Hyundai NEXO Hydrogen Tanks
  • 6.19. Hyundai FCEV Goals
  • 6.20. Hyundai NEXO Sales
  • 6.21. Korea Subsidy Incentives: FCEV push but BEV far ahead
  • 6.22. Honda Clarity Fuel Cell
  • 6.23. Honda FCEV Development Timeline
  • 6.24. Honda Clarity FCEV Components
  • 6.25. Honda Discontinue FC-Clarity: Weak Demand
  • 6.26. BMW Fuel Cell Passenger Car Outlook
  • 6.27. BMW i Hydrogen NEXT FCEV
  • 6.28. Renault-Nissan Fuel Cell Development
  • 6.29. Nissan e-NV200 SOFC Bio-Ethanol Prototype
  • 6.30. General Motors Fuel Cell Development
  • 6.31. GM HYDROTEC Fuel Cell Evolution
  • 6.32. GM Pathway "An All Electric Future"
  • 6.33. Daimler Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL
  • 6.34. Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL Components
  • 6.35. Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL Operating Modes
  • 6.36. Mercedes End FCEV Car Development
  • 6.37. Volkswagen Group: No to FCEV Passenger Cars
  • 6.38. Volkswagen Group - H2 Inefficiency as a Fuel
  • 6.39. Audi Abandons FCEV Development
  • 6.40. Audi A7 Sportback H-Tron
  • 6.41. Chinese FCEV Cars
  • 6.42. China FCEV Focus on Commercial Vehicles
  • 6.43. SAIC China's FCEV Car Pioneer
  • 6.44. Announced Chinese FCEV Cars
  • 6.45. Attitude to FCEV Cars by Company

7. FUEL CELL PASSENGER CAR BARRIERS

  • 7.1. Reality of the FCEV Range Advantage over BEV
  • 7.2. Price Comparison FCEV and Long Range BEV
  • 7.3. FC-Car Fuelling / Charging Advantage?
  • 7.4. Passenger Car CO2 Emissions: FCEV, BEV & ICE
  • 7.5. CO2 Emission from Electricity Generation
  • 7.6. Fuelling Costs Petrol vs Hydrogen
  • 7.7. Fuelling Costs Hydrogen vs Grid Electricity
  • 7.8. Fuel cost comparison per kWh of propulsion in Norway
  • 7.9. Tesla No Interest in Fuel Cells
  • 7.10. Car Emissions by Powertrain Technology in China
  • 7.11. FCEV Car Conclusions
  • 7.12. Why Pursue Fuel Cell Cars?

8. FUEL CELL LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

  • 8.1. Light Commercial Vehicles Definition
  • 8.2. CO2 emission from the LCV sector
  • 8.3. Drivers for LCV Electrification
  • 8.4. Electric LCV Market Drivers
  • 8.5. Considerations for BEV and FCEV LCV Adoption
  • 8.6. Europe eLCV Sales 2020 - BEV Leads FCEV
  • 8.7. China NEV eLCV Sales 2020
  • 8.8. LCV Range Requirement
  • 8.9. LCV Range Requirement Compared to Trucks.
  • 8.10. Do BEV LCVs offer sufficient range?
  • 8.11. Fuel Cell LCVs
  • 8.12. Example Fuel Cell LCV Specifications
  • 8.13. Groupe Renault
  • 8.14. Renault Hydrogen System Diagrams
  • 8.15. Renault and Plug Power FC-LCV Joint Venture
  • 8.16. Stellantis Fuel Cell LCVs
  • 8.17. Stellantis - Citroen / Peugeot / Vauxhall / Opel FC-Van
  • 8.18. Symbio Fuel Cell Systems
  • 8.19. Faurecia and Symbio
  • 8.20. Ballard and Linamar Light-Duty Fuel Cell Alliance
  • 8.21. Fuel Cell Electric Vans - Holthausen
  • 8.22. Outlook for Fuel Cell Light Commercial Vehicles

9. FUEL CELL TRUCKS

  • 9.1. Truck Classifications
  • 9.2. Global CO2 Emission: Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks
  • 9.3. GHG Emission From the Truck Sector
  • 9.4. Road Freight Market
  • 9.5. Projected Increase in Global Road Freight Activity
  • 9.6. Fuel Saving Technology Areas
  • 9.7. The rise of zero (or near zero) exhaust emission trucks
  • 9.8. Heavy-Duty Trucks: BEV or Fuel Cell?
  • 9.9. Range of Zero Emission Medium and Heavy Trucks
  • 9.10. Batteries vs. Fuel Cells: Driving Range
  • 9.11. Daily Duty Cycle Demand
  • 9.12. Powertrain and Range
  • 9.13. Financial Driver: Legislation in Europe
  • 9.14. External Cost of Heavy-Duty Trucks
  • 9.15. Heavy-Duty Truck CO2 Emissions: FCEV, BEV & ICE
  • 9.16. California's Advanced Clean Trucks Regulation
  • 9.17. Fuel Cell Manufacturers Collaboration on US FC-Trucks
  • 9.18. Fuel Cell Power Requirement
  • 9.19. Fuel Cell Truck Example Specifications
  • 9.20. Fuel Cell Trucks: HYUNDAI
  • 9.21. Hyundai Hydrogen Mobility
  • 9.22. Hyundai Pilot FC-Trucks in Switzerland
  • 9.23. Hyundai XCIENT fuel cell Truck Coming to America
  • 9.24. US XCEINT Longer Range
  • 9.25. Hyundai XCIENT 4,000 Unit China Order
  • 9.26. Hyundai Class 8 Concept
  • 9.27. Fuel Cell Trucks: DAIMLER / VOLVO
  • 9.28. Daimler to Begin Testing GenH2 Truck Prototype
  • 9.29. Battery and Fuel Cell Options
  • 9.30. Cellcentric: Daimler and Volvo fuel cell Joint Venture
  • 9.31. Volvo Group: Toward Fossil Free Transport
  • 9.32. Scania to Concentrate on BEV-Trucks
  • 9.33. Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies
  • 9.34. HYZON Motors
  • 9.35. HYZON Motors Heavy-Duty Truck Schematic
  • 9.36. Nikola Corporation
  • 9.37. First Nikola Truck Will be a BEV (not FCEV)
  • 9.38. Nikola ONE - Proof of Concept
  • 9.39. Nikola TWO: New Flagship Fuel Cell Truck
  • 9.40. Nikola Commercial Truck Milestones
  • 9.41. Nikola an "Energy Technology Company"?
  • 9.42. IDTechEx Take: The Future for Nikola
  • 9.43. Fuel Cell Trucks: KENWORTH (PACCAR)
  • 9.44. Fuel Cell Trucks: TOYOTA / HINO
  • 9.45. Fuel Cell Trucks: BALLARD / UPS
  • 9.46. Fuel Cell Trucks: DONGFENG
  • 9.47. Arcola Energy
  • 9.48. Cost of H2 Trucks vs Battery Electric
  • 9.49. Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Cell System Costs
  • 9.50. Green Hydrogen Price Development Forecasts
  • 9.51. Green Hydrogen Electrolysis Production Costs US / EU
  • 9.52. Green Hydrogen Cost by Electricity Source US / EU
  • 9.53. Electrolyser Powered by Curtailed Electricity
  • 9.54. FCEV Truck Hydrogen Consumption
  • 9.55. BOSAL / Ceres Power - SOFC Range Extender
  • 9.56. Fuel Cells and Trucks Today

10. FUEL CELL BUSES

  • 10.1. Fuel Cell Buses
  • 10.2. 30 years of FC-Bus Development
  • 10.3. Main Advantages / Disadvantages of Fuel Cell Buses
  • 10.4. Fuel Cell Bus Schematic
  • 10.5. Fuel Cell Bus Example Specifications
  • 10.6. Other Zero / Low Emission Bus Options
  • 10.7. Gaps in the Market: Prospect for fuel cell Buses
  • 10.8. Battery Electric Buses: Rival or Complementary?
  • 10.9. Both FCEV and BEV to have a Role?
  • 10.10. Infrastructure Cost BEV vs FCEV Bus Depot
  • 10.11. Example Analysis: Foothill Transit, California, Line 486
  • 10.12. Example Analysis: Foothill Transit
  • 10.13. Delivering the Required Duty Milage
  • 10.14. Californian Transit Agencies Milage Distribution
  • 10.15. Zero Emission Bus Range Per Day
  • 10.16. Route Length Suitability for BEV Buses
  • 10.17. Will Battery Improvements make Fuel Cell Buses Obsolete?
  • 10.18. Loop Energy Inc
  • 10.19. Comparison Hydrogen Fuel Cost vs Diesel Cost
  • 10.20. Fuel Cell Bus Deployment Worldwide
  • 10.21. Chinese Fuel Cell Bus OEMs
  • 10.22. Chinese Fuel Cell Bus Examples
  • 10.23. NEV Bus Sales in China 2020
  • 10.24. Chinese FCEV Support
  • 10.25. China Fuel Cell Installed Capacity 2020
  • 10.26. CEMT - Edelman Hydrogen Energy Equipment
  • 10.27. Beijing SinoHytec
  • 10.28. Sinosynergy
  • 10.29. Shanghai Hydrogen Propulsion Technology
  • 10.30. REFIRE - Shanghai Reshaping Energy Technology
  • 10.31. Other Chinese Fuel Cell System Manufacturers
  • 10.32. United Fuel Cell System R&D (Beijing) Co.
  • 10.33. Toyota SORA Fuel Cell Bus
  • 10.34. Structure of Toyota fuel cell bus
  • 10.35. JAPAN FCEV Targets
  • 10.36. Hyundai ELEC CITY Fuel Cell Bus
  • 10.37. Korea FCEV Targets
  • 10.38. US Fuel Cell Buses: Active Fuel Cell Bus Project
  • 10.39. US Fuel Cell Buses: fuel cell Bus Projects in Planning
  • 10.40. US Fuel Cell Buses: fuel cell Bus Projects Completed
  • 10.41. Transitioning the US Fleet to Zero Emission Buses
  • 10.42. The Cost of US Bus Fleet Transition to Zero Emission
  • 10.43. US Fuel Cell Buses: fuel cell Bus Price
  • 10.44. fuel cell Bus CAPEX vs Other Powertrains
  • 10.45. NREL Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations
  • 10.46. Fuel Cell Bus Long-Term Stack Performance Data
  • 10.47. FC-Bus Reliability
  • 10.48. FC-Bus Fuel Efficiency and Fuel Cost
  • 10.49. New Flyer Xcelsior CHARGE H2
  • 10.50. ElDorado National AXESS Fuel Cell Bus
  • 10.51. ElDorado National AXESS Schematic
  • 10.52. Van Hool
  • 10.53. US School Buses
  • 10.54. US eBus Purchase Subsidies
  • 10.55. European Fuel Cell Bus Deployment
  • 10.56. EU JIVE 2 Targets
  • 10.57. Solaris Urbino 12 Hydrogen Bus
  • 10.58. CaetanoBus H2.City Gold
  • 10.59. Toyota Motor Europe
  • 10.60. SAFRA Businova Hydrogen
  • 10.61. Wrightbus StreetDeck Hydroliner
  • 10.62. Van Hool A330 fuel cell Hydrogen Bus
  • 10.63. ADL Enviro400 FCEV
  • 10.64. European Clean Bus Deployment Initiative
  • 10.65. Outlook for Fuel Cell Buses

11. HYDROGEN REFUELLING

  • 11.1. Energy Density of Hydrogen
  • 11.2. Hydrogen Compared to Other Fuels
  • 11.3. Transporting Hydrogen
  • 11.4. Worldwide H2 Refuelling Infrastructure
  • 11.5. Europe Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure
  • 11.6. Hydrogen Roadmap Europe
  • 11.7. The Clean Energy Partnership
  • 11.8. Fuel Cell Charging Infrastructure in the US
  • 11.9. Infrastructure Costs
  • 11.10. Case Study: Hydrogen Costs
  • 11.11. China Hydrogen Refuelling Station Roadmap
  • 11.12. China Hydrogen Refuelling Stations
  • 11.13. China's FCEV Deployment will it be Green?
  • 11.14. Guide to Hydrogen Truck Refuelling
  • 11.15. Developing Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure
  • 11.16. Fuel Cell Truck Refuelling Advantage
  • 11.17. Long-haul Trucking Opportunity?
  • 11.18. FC-Trucks Facilitate Wider FCEV Deployment
  • 11.19. Nikola Trucks: Hydrogen Infrastructure
  • 11.20. Material Based Hydrogen Storage

12. FCEV GLOBAL MARKET FORECASTS (LCV, M&HDT, CITY-BUS, CAR)

  • 12.1. Forecast Assumptions
  • 12.2. FCEV (LCV, M&HDT, Bus, Car) Global Sales Forecast 2018-2042
  • 12.3. FCEV (LCV, M&HDT, Bus, Car) Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 12.4. FCEV (LCV, M&HDT, Bus, Car) Battery Demand (GWh)
  • 12.5. FCEV (LCV, M&HDT, Bus, Car) Market Size ($USD Billion)

13. MARKET FORECASTS FC-CARS

  • 13.1. Forecast Assumptions
  • 13.2. FCEV Passenger Car Global Sales Forecast 2018-2042
  • 13.3. FCEV Passenger Car Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 13.4. FCEV Passenger Car Battery Demand (GWh)
  • 13.5. FCEV Passenger Car Market Size ($USD Billion)

14. MARKET FORECASTS FC-LCV

  • 14.1. Forecast Assumptions
  • 14.2. Light Commercial Vehicles Sales Forecast 2018-2042 (Units)
  • 14.3. FCEV LCV Sales Forecast by Region (Units)
  • 14.4. FCEV LCV Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 14.5. FCEV LCV Battery Demand (GWh)
  • 14.6. FCEV LCV Market Size ($USD Billion)

15. MARKET FORECASTS FC-TRUCKS

  • 15.1. Forecast Assumptions
  • 15.2. Medium-Duty Truck Sales Forecast 2018-2042 (Units)
  • 15.3. FCEV MDT Sales Forecast by Region (Units)
  • 15.4. FCEV MDT Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 15.5. FCEV MDT Battery Demand (GWh)
  • 15.6. FCEV MDT Market Size ($USD Billion)
  • 15.7. Heavy-Duty Truck Sales Forecast 2018-2042 (Units)
  • 15.8. FCEV HDT Sales Forecast by Region (Units)
  • 15.9. FCEV HDT Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 15.10. FCEV HDT Battery Demand (GWh)
  • 15.11. FCEV HDT Market Size ($USD Billion)

16. MARKET FORECASTS FC-BUSES

  • 16.1. Forecast Assumptions
  • 16.2. BEV, PHEV and FCEV City Bus Sales 2016-2042 (Units)
  • 16.3. FCEV City Bus Sales Forecast by Region (Units)
  • 16.4. FCEV City Bus Fuel Cell Demand (MW)
  • 16.5. FCEV City Bus Battery Demand (GWh)
  • 16.6. FCEV City Bus Market Size ($USD Billion)
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