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이산화탄소(CO2) 활용(2022-2042년): 기술, 시장 전망 및 기업

Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2022-2042: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players

리서치사 IDTechEx Ltd.
발행일 2022년 05월 상품코드 1073187
페이지 정보 영문 284 Slides 배송안내 1-2일 (영업일 기준)
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이산화탄소(CO2) 활용(2022-2042년): 기술, 시장 전망 및 기업 Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2022-2042: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players
발행일 : 2022년 05월 페이지 정보 : 영문 284 Slides

본 상품은 영문 자료로 한글과 영문 목차에 불일치하는 내용이 있을 경우 영문을 우선합니다. 정확한 검토를 위해 영문목차를 참고해주시기 바랍니다.

IDTechEx는 2042년까지 전 세계 이산화탄소 활용 시장이 2,850억 달러를 넘어설 것으로 전망하고 있습니다.

이산화탄소 활용(CO2U) 기술은 탄소 포획 활용 및 저장(CCUS) 기술의 하위 집합으로, 건축 자재, 합성 연료, 화학 물질, 플라스틱과 같은 부가가치 제품을 만들기 위해 인위적인 CO2를 생산적으로 사용하는 것을 말합니다. CCUS는 전 세계에 대규모로 도입되었으며 세계 경제를 탈탄소화하는 중요한 도구로 여겨집니다. 지하에 이산화탄소를 저장하는 것 뿐만 아니라, 그 활용에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있습니다. CO2U는 보다 순환적인 경제를 촉진할 수 있을 뿐만 아니라, 경우에 따라서는 특성이 향상된 제품이나 공급 원료 비용이 낮은 공정으로 귀결될 수도 있습니다.

CO2U 산업은 세계의 야심찬 기후 목표를 달성하기 위한 해결책으로 탄력을 받았습니다. 많은 상업화 전단계의 프로젝트들이 현재 운영 중이거나 건설 중이며, 주로 유럽과 북미에 집중되어 있으며, 더 많은 프로젝트들이 공공 및 민간 투자에 의해 지원되는 파이프라인에 있습니다. 아직 초기 단계이긴 하지만, 유저의 관심을 받고 있습니다. 기업과 개인들이 저탄소 제품에 대한 수요를 창출하고 있다고 보도되고 있습니다.

이 보고서는 향후 20년 동안 이 신흥 시장을 형성할 기술적, 경제적, 환경적 측면을 심층적으로 분석하여 전 세계 CO2 활용 산업에 대한 포괄적인 전망을 제공합니다. IDTechEx는 향상된 석유 회수, 건축 자재, 액체 및 가스 연료, 폴리머, 화학 물질 및 생물학적 수율 향상(곡물 온실, 해조류 및 발효)에서 CO2 사용 사례를 검토하여 각 영역 내의 기술 혁신과 기회를 모색하고 있습니다. 또한 이 보고서에는 11개의 CO2U 제품 카테고리의 구현에 대한 20년간의 세부 예측과 20개 이상의 인터뷰 기반 회사 프로필이 포함되어 있습니다.

이 보고서에서 답변한 주요 질문은 다음과 같습니다.

  • CO2 활용이란 무엇이며 기후 변화를 해결하기 위해 어떻게 사용될 수 있습니까?
  • 오늘날 업계에서 CO2는 어떻게 사용됩니까?
  • CO2U의 시장 잠재력은 얼마나 됩니까?
  • CO2는 어떻게 유용한 제품으로 전환될 수 있을까요?
  • CO2U 프로세스의 기술 준비 수준은 어느 정도입니까?
  • CO2U 프로세스의 에너지 및 공급 스톡 요구 사항은 무엇입니까?
  • CO2 유래 제품의 성능은 기존 제품과 비교했을 때 어떻습니까?
  • CO2U 시장 성장의 주요 동인과 장애물은 무엇입니까?
  • CO2U 기술의 비용은 얼마입니까?
  • CO2U의 주요 성장 기회는 어디에 있습니까?
  • CO2U의 핵심 주체는 누구입니까?
  • CO2U 기술의 기후 영향은 무엇입니까?

목차

1. 주요 요약

  • 1.1. 왜 CO2 활용인가?
  • 1.2. 산업용 탈탄소 과제
  • 1.3. CO2 이용 경로
  • 1.4. 새롭게 등장한 CO2 활용 애플리케이션 비교
  • 1.5. CO2-EOR은 무엇입니까?
  • 1.6 CO2-EOR의 세계적 위상은 미국이 지배하고 있지만 다른 지역이 부상하고 있다.
  • 1.7. CO2-EOR SWOT 분석
  • 1.8 건설부문 배출에서 콘크리트의 역할
  • 1.9. CO2 유래 건축 자재
  • 1.10. 시멘트 및 콘크리트 공급망에서의 CO2 사용
  • 1.11. CO2에서 파생된 건축 자재의 주요 이점
  • 1.12. CO2 유래 화학 물질
  • 1.13. 이산화탄소는 거대한 범위의 화학물질로 바뀔 수 있다.
  • 1.14. 어떤 CO2U 기술이 어떤 화학 물질에 더 적합합니까?
  • 1.15.CO2 유래 화학물질 및 폴리머의 주요 사항
  • 1.16. CO2 유래 연료
  • 1.17.CO2 유래 연료의 주요 경로
  • 1.18. CO2 유래 연료 SWOT 분석
  • 1.19. 생물학적 생산량 증대를 위한 CO2 활용
  • 1.20. 생물학적 공정에서의 CO2 활용
  • 1.21. 생물학적 수율 상승에 대한 CO2 사용: 장단점
  • 1.22. 신흥 CO2 활용의 핵심 주체
  • 1.23. CO2U의 미래 시장 잠재력을 이끄는 요인
  • 1.24. 탄소 이용 가능성 및 기후 편익
  • 1.25. CO2 활용: 일반적인 장단점
  • 1.26. 제품별 CO2 이용 용량 예측(연간 CO2 백만 톤), 2022-2042

2. 소개

3. CO2 오일 회수 강화

4. 건축자재의 CO2 활용

5. CO2 유래 화학 물질

6. CO2 유래 연료

7. 생물학적 공정에서의 CO2 활용

8. CO2 활용 시장 전망

9. 부록

JYH 22.05.11

Title:
Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2022-2042: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players
Granular forecasts, interview-based company profiles, benchmarking, and market outlook of carbon dioxide utilization technologies in enhanced oil recovery, building materials, fuels, polymers, commodity chemicals, crop greenhouses, algae, and proteins.

IDTechEx forecasts global carbon dioxide utilization market to exceed $285 billion by 2042

Carbon dioxide utilization (CO2U) technologies are a sub-set of carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies and refer to the productive use of anthropogenic CO2 to make value-added products such as building materials, synthetic fuels, chemicals, and plastics. CCUS have been deployed around the world at large-scale and are seen as a crucial tool to decarbonize the world's economy. As well as storing CO2 in the subsurface, there has been increasing interest in its utilization. CO2U can promote not only a more circular economy but also, in some cases, result in products with enhanced properties or processes with lower feedstock costs.

The CO2U industry has gained momentum as a solution to achieve the world's ambitious climate goals. Many pre-commercial projects are currently operating or under construction, mostly concentrated in Europe and North America, with more in the pipeline supported by public and private investments. Although still in its infancy, the market pull is coming from the users - businesses and individuals are reportedly creating demand for low-carbon products.

This report provides a comprehensive outlook of the global CO2 utilization industry, with an in-depth analysis of the technological, economic, and environmental aspects that are set to shape this emerging market over the next twenty years. IDTechEx considers CO2 use cases in enhanced oil recovery, building materials, liquid and gaseous fuels, polymers, chemicals, and in biological yield-boosting (crop greenhouses, algae, and fermentation), exploring the technology innovations and opportunities within each area. The report also includes a twenty-year granular forecast for the deployment of 11 CO2U product categories, alongside 20+ interview-based company profiles.

Emerging applications of CO2 utilization: inputs, manufacturing pathways, and products made from CO2. Source: IDTechEx.

The options are diverse

Despite its potential to create a market for waste CO2, not all CO2U technologies are created equal. These systems face a range of economic, technical, and regulatory challenges which need to be carefully considered so that the technologies that actually provide climate benefits - and are economically viable - can be prioritized and pursued. For instance, for many CO2U routes, the CO2 sequestration is only temporary with the CO2 utilized being released to the atmosphere once the product is consumed (e.g., CO2-derived fuels or proteins), whilst for others, the CO2 can be stored permanently (e.g., CO2-derived building materials). On the economic side, many CO2U pathways can be considerably more expensive than their fossil-based counterparts due to high energy requirements, low yields, or need of other expensive feedstock (e.g., green hydrogen, catalysts). The report provides insights into the most promising processes being developed in CO2U, highlighting the pros and cons of each pathway and end-product.

Innovative companies across the world are developing technologies to improve the energy efficiency of CO2 conversion processes and reduce their costs. The report gives an overview of these players' latest developments, with first-hand accounts of the challenges and opportunities within the industry.

The highest potential areas

Successful deployment for CO2-based polymers saw considerable growth in recent years, especially in Europe and Asia, with more than 250 thousand metric tons of CO2 already used in polymer manufacturing annually worldwide (based on currently operating plants). IDTechEx expects the sector to continue to expand, even though its climate mitigation potential is limited, mainly due to its intrinsic low CO2 utilization ratio (volume of CO2 per volume of CO2-derived product).

Construction materials, fuels, and commodity chemicals (e.g., methanol, ethanol, olefins) offer vast potential for CO2 utilization, but this will not be realized without development of an extensive CO2 network linking capture sites to usage sites, widespread deployment of clean energy, or regulatory support (e.g., sustainable fuel mandates). CO2-derived construction products in particular - such as concrete and aggregates - are set to gain considerable market share due to its helpful thermodynamics and ability to sequester CO2 permanently.

The niche areas

The solid carbon (e.g., carbon nanotubes, carbon fiber, diamonds) and protein sectors will remain niche applications of CO2 utilization, despite their high market value, due to, respectively, the small size of the market (in volumes) and fierce competition from incumbents. Waste CO2 utilization in algae cultivation is still in the early stages, and many hurdles need to be addressed before commodity-scale applications become a reality.

Key questions answered in this report:

  • What is CO2 utilization and how can it be used to address climate change?
  • How is CO2 used in the industry today?
  • What is the market potential for CO2U?
  • How can CO2 be converted into useful products?
  • What is the technology readiness level of CO2U processes?
  • What are the energy and feedstocks requirements for CO2U processes?
  • How does the performance of CO2-derived products compare with their conventional counterparts?
  • What are the key drivers and hurdles for CO2U market growth?
  • How much do CO2U technologies cost?
  • Where are the key growth opportunities for CO2U?
  • Who are the key players in CO2U?
  • What is the climate impact of CO2U technologies?

Analyst access from IDTechEx

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Why CO2 Utilization?
  • 1.2. The industrial decarbonization challenge
  • 1.3. CO2 Utilization pathways
  • 1.4. Comparison of emerging CO2 utilization applications
  • 1.5. What is CO2-EOR?
  • 1.6. Global status of CO2-EOR: U.S. dominates but other regions arise
  • 1.7. CO2-EOR SWOT analysis
  • 1.8. The role of concrete in the construction sector emissions
  • 1.9. CO2-derived building materials
  • 1.10. CO2 use in the cement and concrete supply chain
  • 1.11. Key takeaways in CO2-derived building materials
  • 1.12. CO2-derived chemicals
  • 1.13. CO2 can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
  • 1.14. Which CO2U technologies are more suitable to which chemicals?
  • 1.15. Key points in CO2-derived chemicals and polymers
  • 1.16. CO2-derived fuels
  • 1.17. Main routes to CO2-derived fuels
  • 1.18. CO2-derived fuels SWOT analysis
  • 1.19. CO2 Utilization to boost biological yields
  • 1.20. CO2 utilization in biological processes
  • 1.21. CO2 use in biological yield-boosting: pros and cons
  • 1.22. Key players in emerging CO2 Utilization
  • 1.23. Factors driving CO2U future market potential
  • 1.24. Carbon Utilization potential and climate benefits
  • 1.25. CO2 Utilization: general pros and cons
  • 1.26. CO2 utilization capacity forecast by product (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 1.27. Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by product (million US$), 2022-2042

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Definition and report scope
  • 2.2. The world needs an unprecedented transition away from fossil carbon
  • 2.3. Why CO2 Utilization?
  • 2.4. How is CO2 used and sourced today?
  • 2.5. CO2 Utilization pathways
  • 2.6. Reductive vs non-reductive methods
  • 2.7. CO2 Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • 2.8. CO2 Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • 2.9. Main emerging applications of CO2 utilization
  • 2.10. Carbon Utilization potential and climate benefits
  • 2.11. Factors driving future market potential
  • 2.12. Cost effectiveness of CO2 utilization applications
  • 2.13. Carbon pricing is needed for most CO2U applications to break even
  • 2.14. Traction in CO2U: funding worldwide
  • 2.15. Traction in CO2U: funding and policies in Europe
  • 2.16. Carbon utilization - technical challenges
  • 2.17. Climate benefits of major CO2U applications (i)
  • 2.18. Climate benefits of major CO2U applications (ii)
  • 2.19. Technology readiness and climate benefits of CO2U pathways
  • 2.20. Carbon utilization business models
  • 2.21. CO2 Utilization: general pros and cons
  • 2.22. Conclusions

3. CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

  • 3.1. What is CO2-EOR?
  • 3.2. What happens to the injected CO2?
  • 3.3. Types of CO2-EOR designs
  • 3.4. The CO2 source: natural vs anthropogenic
  • 3.5. The CO2 source impacts costs and technology choice
  • 3.6. Global status of CO2-EOR: U.S. dominates but other regions arise
  • 3.7. World's large-scale anthropogenic CO2-EOR facilities
  • 3.8. CO2-EOR potential
  • 3.9. Most CO2 in the U.S. is still naturally sourced
  • 3.10. CO2-EOR main players in the U.S.
  • 3.11. CO2-EOR main players in North America
  • 3.12. Denbury Resources
  • 3.13. CO2 transportation is a bottleneck
  • 3.14. Century Plant: the current biggest CCUS/EOR project
  • 3.15. Boundary Dam - battling capture technical issues
  • 3.16. CO2-EOR in China
  • 3.17. The economics of promoting CO2 storage through CO2-EOR
  • 3.18. The impact of oil prices on CO2-EOR feasibility
  • 3.19. Petra Nova's shutdown: lessons for the industry?
  • 3.20. Carbon sequestration tax credits role: the U.S. 45Q
  • 3.21. Climate considerations in CO2-EOR
  • 3.22. The climate impact of CO2-EOR varies over time
  • 3.23. CO2-EOR: an on-ramp for CCS and DACCS?
  • 3.24. CO2-EOR in shale: the next frontier?
  • 3.25. CO2-EOR SWOT analysis
  • 3.26. Key takeaways: market
  • 3.27. Key takeaways: environmental

4. CO2 UTILIZATION IN BUILDING MATERIALS

  • 4.1.1. The role of concrete in the construction sector emissions
  • 4.1.2. The role of cement in concrete's carbon footprint
  • 4.1.3. The role of cement in concrete's carbon footprint (ii)
  • 4.1.4. The Basic Chemistry: CO2 Mineralization
  • 4.1.5. CO2 use in the cement and concrete supply chain
  • 4.1.6. Can the CO2 used in building materials come from cement plants?
  • 4.1.7. Carbonation of recycled concrete in a cement plant
  • 4.1.8. Fortera Corporation
  • 4.2. CO2 utilization in concrete curing or mixing
    • 4.2.1. CO2 utilization in concrete curing or mixing
    • 4.2.2. CO2 utilization in concrete curing or mixing (ii)
    • 4.2.3. CarbonCure Technologies
    • 4.2.4. Solidia
    • 4.2.5. Carboclave
    • 4.2.6. CarbiCrete
    • 4.2.7. Orbix
    • 4.2.8. CarbonBuilt
  • 4.3. CO2 utilization in carbonates
    • 4.3.1. CO2 utilization in carbonates
    • 4.3.2. CarbonFree
    • 4.3.3. CO2-derived carbonates from natural minerals
    • 4.3.4. CO2-derived carbonates from waste
    • 4.3.5. CO2-derived carbonates from waste (ii)
    • 4.3.6. Carbon Upcycling Technologies
    • 4.3.7. Blue Planet
    • 4.3.8. Carbon8
  • 4.4. Market analysis of CO2-derived building materials
    • 4.4.1. The market potential of CO2 use in the construction industry
    • 4.4.2. Supplying CO2 to a decentralized concrete industry
    • 4.4.3. Prefabricated versus ready-mixed concrete markets
    • 4.4.4. Market dynamics of cement and concrete
    • 4.4.5. CO2U business models in building materials
    • 4.4.6. CO2U technology adoption in construction materials
    • 4.4.7. CO2 utilization players in mineralization
    • 4.4.8. Factors influencing CO2U adoption in construction
    • 4.4.9. Factors influencing CO2U adoption in construction (ii)
    • 4.4.10. Concrete carbon footprint of key CO2U companies
    • 4.4.11. Key takeaways in CO2-derived building materials
    • 4.4.12. Key takeaways in CO2-derived building materials (ii)
    • 4.4.13. Key takeaways in CO2-derived building materials (iii)

5. CO2-DERIVED CHEMICALS

  • 5.1.1. The chemical industry's decarbonization challenge
  • 5.1.2. CO2 can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
  • 5.1.3. Using CO2 as a feedstock is energy-intensive
  • 5.1.4. The basics: types of CO2 utilization reactions
  • 5.2. CO2-derived chemicals: pathways and products
    • 5.2.1. CO2 use in urea production
    • 5.2.2. CO2 may need to be first converted into CO or syngas
    • 5.2.3. Chiyoda
    • 5.2.4. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: syngas to hydrocarbons
    • 5.2.5. Electrochemical CO2 reduction
    • 5.2.6. Electrochemical CO2 reduction products
    • 5.2.7. Low-temperature electrochemical CO2 reduction
    • 5.2.8. Twelve
    • 5.2.9. High-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers
    • 5.2.10. Haldor Topsøe
    • 5.2.11. Methanol is a valuable chemical feedstock
    • 5.2.12. Cost parity has been a challenge for CO2-derived methanol
    • 5.2.13. Thermochemical methods: CO2-derived methanol
    • 5.2.14. Carbon Recycling International
    • 5.2.15. Aromatic hydrocarbons from CO2
    • 5.2.16. Artificial photosynthesis
  • 5.3. CO2-derived polymers
    • 5.3.1. CO2 in polymer manufacturing
    • 5.3.2. Commercial production of polycarbonate from CO2
    • 5.3.3. Covestro
    • 5.3.4. Econic
    • 5.3.5. Evonik
    • 5.3.6. Asahi Kasei: CO2-based aromatic polycarbonates
  • 5.4. CO2-derived pure carbon products
    • 5.4.1. Carbon nanostructures made from CO2
    • 5.4.2. Mars Materials
  • 5.5. CO2-derived chemicals: market and general considerations
    • 5.5.1. Players in CO2-derived chemicals by end-product
    • 5.5.2. CO2-derived chemicals: market potential
    • 5.5.3. Are CO2-derived chemicals climate beneficial?
    • 5.5.4. Investments and industrial collaboration are key
    • 5.5.5. Steel-off gases as a CO2U feedstock
    • 5.5.6. Centralized or distributed chemical manufacturing?
    • 5.5.7. What would it take for the chemical industry to run on CO2?
  • 5.6. CO2-derived chemicals: takeaways
    • 5.6.1. Which CO2U technologies are more suitable to which products?
    • 5.6.2. Technical feasibility of main CO2-derived chemicals
    • 5.6.3. Key takeaways in CO2-derived chemicals

6. CO2-DERIVED FUELS

  • 6.1. What are CO2-derived fuels?
  • 6.2. CO2 can be converted into a variety of energy carriers
  • 6.3. Summary of main routes to CO2-fuels
  • 6.4. The challenge of energy efficiency
  • 6.5. CO2-fuels are pertinent to a specific context
  • 6.6. CO2-fuels in shipping
  • 6.7. CO2-fuels in aviation
  • 6.8. Sustainable aviation fuel policies (i)
  • 6.9. Sustainable aviation fuel policies (ii)
  • 6.10. Liquid Wind
  • 6.11. Obrist Group
  • 6.12. Coval Energy
  • 6.13. CO2-derived formic acid as a hydrogen carrier
  • 6.14. Synthetic natural gas - thermocatalytic pathway
  • 6.15. Biological fermentation of CO2 into methane
  • 6.16. Drivers and barriers for power-to-gas technology adoption
  • 6.17. Power-to-gas projects worldwide - current and announced
  • 6.18. Can CO2-fuels achieve cost parity with fossil-fuels?
  • 6.19. CO2-fuels rollout is linked to electrolyzer capacity
  • 6.20. Low-carbon hydrogen is crucial to CO2-fuels
  • 6.21. CO2-derived fuels projects announced
  • 6.22. CO2-derived fuels projects worldwide over time - current and announced
  • 6.23. CO2-fuels from solar power
  • 6.24. Synhelion
  • 6.25. Dimensional Energy
  • 6.26. Companies in CO2-fuels by end-product
  • 6.27. CO2-derived fuel: players
  • 6.28. CO2-derived fuel: players (ii)
  • 6.29. Sunfire: SOEC techonology
  • 6.30. Audi synthetic fuels
  • 6.31. Are CO2-fuels climate beneficial?
  • 6.32. CO2-derived fuels SWOT analysis
  • 6.33. CO2-derived fuels: market potential
  • 6.34. Key takeaways

7. CO2 UTILIZATION IN BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

  • 7.1. CO2 utilization in biological processes
  • 7.2. Main companies using CO2 in biological processes
  • 7.3. CO2 utilization in greenhouses
  • 7.4. CO2 enrichment in greenhouses
  • 7.5. CO2 enrichment in greenhouses: market potential
  • 7.6. CO2 enrichment in greenhouses: pros and cons
  • 7.7. CO2 utilization in algae cultivation
  • 7.8. CO2-enhanced algae or cyanobacteria cultivation
  • 7.9. Cemvita Factory
  • 7.10. CO2-enhanced algae cultivation: open vs closed systems
  • 7.11. Algae CO2 capture from cement plants
  • 7.12. Algae has multiple market applications
  • 7.13. The algae-based fuel market has been rocky
  • 7.14. Algae-based fuel for aviation
  • 7.15. CO2-enhanced algae cultivation: pros and cons
  • 7.16. CO2 utilization in microbial conversion
  • 7.17. CO2 utilization in biomanufacturing
  • 7.18. CO2-consuming microorganisms
  • 7.19. LanzaTech
  • 7.20. Newlight
  • 7.21. Food and feed from CO2
  • 7.22. Solar Foods
  • 7.23. CO2-derived food and feed: market
  • 7.24. Carbon fermentation: pros and cons

8. CO2 UTILIZATION MARKET FORECAST

  • 8.1. Forecast scope & methodology
  • 8.2. CO2-derived product benchmarking (i)
  • 8.3. CO2-derived product benchmarking (ii)
  • 8.4. Forecast product categories
  • 8.5. CO2-derived product price forecast: methodology
  • 8.6. CO2-derived product price forecast: input and results
  • 8.7. CO2 utilization overall market forecast
  • 8.8. CO2 utilization capacity forecast by category (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.9. CO2 utilization capacity forecast by product (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.10. Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by category (million US$), 2022-2042
  • 8.11. Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by product (million US$), 2022-2042
  • 8.12. CO2 utilization market forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
  • 8.13. The evolution of the CO2U market
  • 8.14. CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery forecast
  • 8.15. CO2-EOR forecast assumptions
  • 8.16. CO2-EOR annual revenue (million US$) and oil production (million barrels per day), 2022-2042
  • 8.17. CO2-EOR utilization rate by source (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.18. CO2-derived building materials forecast
  • 8.19. CO2-derived building materials: forecast assumptions
  • 8.20. CO2 utilization forecast in building materials by end-use (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.21. CO2-derived building materials volume forecast by product (million tonnes of product per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.22. Annual revenue forecast for CO2-derived building materials by product (million US$), 2022-2042
  • 8.23. CO2-derived building materials forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
  • 8.24. CO2-derived fuels forecast
  • 8.25. CO2-derived fuels: forecast assumptions
  • 8.26. CO2 utilization forecast in fuels by fuel type (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.27. CO2-derived fuels volume forecast by fuel type (million tonnes of fuel per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.28. Annual revenue forecast for CO2-derived fuels by fuel type (million US$), 2022-2042
  • 8.29. CO2-derived fuels forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
  • 8.30. CO2-derived fuels forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
  • 8.31. CO2-derived chemicals forecast
  • 8.32. CO2-derived chemicals: forecast assumptions
  • 8.33. CO2 utilization forecast in chemicals by end-use (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.34. CO2 -derived chemicals volume forecast by end-use (million tonnes product per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.35. Annual revenue forecast for CO2-derived chemicals by end-use (million US$), 2022-2042
  • 8.36. CO2-derived chemicals forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
  • 8.37. CO2 use in biological yield-boosting forecast
  • 8.38. CO2 use in biological yield-boosting: forecast assumptions
  • 8.39. CO2 utilization forecast in biological yield-boosting by end-use (million tonnes of CO2 per year), 2022-2042
  • 8.40. Annual revenue forecast for CO2 use in biological yield-boosting by end-use (million US$), 2022-2042
  • 8.41. CO2 use in biological yield-boosting forecast, 2022-2042: discussion

9. APPENDIX

  • 9.1. Players in CO2-derived chemicals (i)
  • 9.2. Players in CO2-derived chemicals (ii)
  • 9.3. Players in CO2-derived chemicals (iii)
  • 9.4. Players in CO2-derived chemicals (iv)
  • 9.5. Players in CO2-derived polymers (i)
  • 9.6. Players in CO2-derived polymers (ii)
  • 9.7. Players in CO2-derived solid carbon
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