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고정형 에너지 저장용 배터리(2019-2029년)

Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2019-2029

리서치사 IDTechEx Ltd.
발행일 2019년 06월 상품 코드 876849
페이지 정보 영문 203 Slides
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고정형 에너지 저장용 배터리(2019-2029년) Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2019-2029
발행일 : 2019년 06월 페이지 정보 : 영문 203 Slides

세계의 고정형 에너지 저장용 배터리(Stationary Energy Storage Batteries) 시장에 대해 조사했으며, 지역별 현재 시장 규모와 실적, 지역·부문별 시장 규모 예측(GWh 및 금액 기준), 주요 국가 시장 분석, 전기공급자측(FTM)·소비자측(BTM)의 주요 성장 촉진요인과 향후 변동 예측, 대체 에너지 저장 기술, 주요 시장의 사례 연구 등을 제공합니다.

제1장 주요 요약

제2장 서론

제3장 배터리의 기본

  • LiB 기술 개요 : 전지 화학으로부터 배터리 팩으로
  • Li-ion의 대체
  • 고정형 저장 시스템 비용

제4장 고정형 에너지 저장 : 성장 촉진요인

  • ES 성장 촉진요인의 서론
  • ES 성장 촉진요인의 개요
  • 재생에너지의 자가 소비
  • 자가 소비의 원리
  • ToU 거래
  • FIT(고정가격 매입 제도)의 단계적 폐지
  • 넷 미터링의 단계적 폐지
  • 전력 구입 계약
  • 태양광발전 보상의 요약
  • 수용 전력 요금의 절감
  • 가스 피커 발전소의 연기
  • VPP(가상발전소)
  • VPP 기업
  • 오프그리드 및 원격 용도
  • 원격의 과제 : 지역 및 섬 용도
  • 기타 성장 촉진요인

제5장 성장 촉진요인 : 부대 서비스

  • 부대 서비스의 개요
  • 부대 서비스의 요건
  • 주파수대의 규제
  • 주파수대 규제 수준
  • 부하추종성
  • 순동예비력 및 비순동예비력

제6장 지역 분석

  • 에너지 저장 전개 FTM 및 BTM : 국가별
  • 미국
  • 영국
  • 독일
  • 이탈리아
  • 호주
  • 중국
  • 기타

제7장 주요 ESS 기업

  • 태양광과 저장의 컨버전스
  • 다운스트림 에너지 저장 컴포넌트 벤더
  • ESS의 세계적 기업
  • 기타 부문으로부터 참여하는 기업
  • 밸류체인
  • 어셈블리 비지니스의 많은 기업
  • Tesla의 ESS 비지니스
  • Powerwall과 Powerpack
  • 주택용 저장 비용 내역
  • 주요 Powerpack 프로젝트
  • Tesla의 ESS 비지니스
  • Leclanche
  • Green Charge Networks
  • BUD
  • BYD의 레이아웃은 Tesla와 유사
  • Green Mountain Power
  • Green Mountain Power의 혁신 전략
  • Ampard and Fenecon
  • Stem
  • Sonnen
KSM 19.07.05

Title:
Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2019-2029
A global view of behind-the-meter & front-of-meter stationary energy storage deployments and market drivers.

The global market for stationary batteries will top 300GWh by 2029.

2018 was a remarkable year for stationary energy storage. Governments and policymakers around the world are beginning to wake up to the value batteries can offer to the grid, both in terms of flexibility and decarbonisation. Over 6GWh was deployed, and market leaders such as Tesla expect to double their deployments for 2019.

The progress is thanks in no small part to falling Li-ion battery costs, driven by the economies of scale of the electric car industry: plug-in passenger electrics topped five million on roads globally at the beginning of 2019. Indeed, as costs have fallen, projects with longer duration battery systems have become feasible: many new grid-level projects are now four hours. This has created opportunities for storage developers: in some scenarios it has even enabled the displacement of gas peaker plants, for grids aiming to fully decarbonise. As detailed in the new IDTechEx report, 'Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2019 - 2029', enormous new projects are underway, and some dwarf the record-breaking '100MW (120MWh) in 100 days' challenge from Elon Musk to the South Australian government in 2017.

The U.S. has led the industry for a number of years; a sizable mandate from California coupled with big-budget financial incentives have underpinned the country's deployments, as well as the batteries procured for frequency response in PJM's territory from 2012 - 2017 (now saturated). In 2018, landmark rulings like FERC Order 841, ambitious decarbonisation and renewables targets in multiple states, and growing momentum behind state-wide energy storage mandates will pave the way for the future of energy storage in the country.

The global picture is also changing: both China & South Korea topped 1GWh in yearly deployments in 2018, with India also commissioning some of its first large-scale projects. With such rapid progress, teething problems have emerged: to meet the sudden demand in South Korea, ESS makers compromised on quality, leading to a government shutdown of hundreds of public battery systems that spontaneously caught fire. The issue was reported by Korean news outlets to be faulty battery management systems.

Despite hiccups, the ambitious levels of renewables integration in many of these countries will nevertheless require massive amounts of energy storage to manage moving forward. The new IDTechEx report details the leading countries now and in the future.

Based on a global assessment IDTechEx Research has developed forecasts by segment and region for 2019 - 2029.

The key takeaways / benefits of the research in this report are:

  • Current year and historical deployments of stationary energy storage by region.
  • Market forecasts up to 2029 by region and segment (behind-the-meter, front-of-meter) in GWh and $ billion.
  • Regional analysis: Germany, Australia, Italy, Japan, UK, China, US, South Korea, India.
  • Key drivers in front and behind-the-meter, how this will change in the future.
  • A look at alternative energy storage technologies with relative strengths and weaknesses, including Redox Flow Batteries, Fuel Cells and more.
  • Case studies of select markets.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. What's the big deal with batteries?
  • 1.2. Historical context
  • 1.3. Stationary energy storage is not new
  • 1.4. Classification of energy storage systems
  • 1.5. The rapid adoption of electric vehicles
  • 1.6. Front-of-meter (FTM) and behind-the-meter (BTM)
  • 1.7. Stationary storage markets
  • 1.8. Overview of ES drivers
  • 1.9. Market forecast by country (GWh)
  • 1.10. Market forecast by country (GWh) - Table
  • 1.11. Market forecast, FTM and BTM split (GWh)
  • 1.12. Market forecast ($ billion)
  • 1.13. Forecast assumptions and explanation
  • 1.14. Deployment by country, 2018
  • 1.15. Global overview
  • 1.16. U.S. mandates and targets overview
  • 1.17. Global overview
  • 1.18. Market barriers & challenges
  • 1.19. Important considerations for battery selection
  • 1.20. The battery trilema

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. ESS, BESS, BTM, FTM
  • 2.2. Electrochemistry definitions
  • 2.3. Useful charts for performance comparison
  • 2.4. Stationary Energy Storage Markets
  • 2.5. MW or MWh?
  • 2.6. Incentives for energy storage
  • 2.7. Turning a battery into an ESS
  • 2.8. Levelised cost of storage (LCOS)
  • 2.9. Costs that influence LCOS

3. BATTERY BASICS

  • 3.1. Overview of LiB technologies: from cell chemistry to battery packs
    • 3.1.1. What is a Li-ion battery?
    • 3.1.2. The elements used in Li-ion batteries
    • 3.1.3. Standard materials in LiBs
    • 3.1.4. A family tree of Li based batteries
    • 3.1.5. There is more than one type of LiB
    • 3.1.6. Standard cathode materials - LCO and LFP
    • 3.1.7. Cathode alternatives - NCA
    • 3.1.8. NMC
    • 3.1.9. Cathode overview
    • 3.1.10. Anode materials - Battery-grade graphite
    • 3.1.11. LTO anode - Toshiba
    • 3.1.12. Inactive materials negatively affect energy density
    • 3.1.13. Commercial cell geometries
    • 3.1.14. Differences between cell, module, and pack
    • 3.1.15. Safety
  • 3.2. Alternatives to Li-ion
    • 3.2.1. More than Li-ion
    • 3.2.2. The increasingly important role of stationary storage
    • 3.2.3. Stalling battery technologies
    • 3.2.4. Lead-acid batteries
    • 3.2.5. Sodium sulphur battery
    • 3.2.6. Nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride battery
    • 3.2.7. Redox flow batteries for stationary storage?
    • 3.2.8. Redox flow batteries working principle
    • 3.2.9. Exploded view of VRFB
    • 3.2.10. Hybrid RFBs: Zinc/Bromine
    • 3.2.11. Hybrid RFBs: Hydrogen/Bromine
    • 3.2.12. Most popular: Vanadium redox flow battery
    • 3.2.13. Technology and manufacturing readiness of RFBs
    • 3.2.14. Fuel Cells: working principle
    • 3.2.15. Fuel cells
    • 3.2.16. Fuel cells in California SGIP program
    • 3.2.17. Comparison of ES technology use cases
  • 3.3. Stationary storage system costs
    • 3.3.1. Why costs are important
    • 3.3.2. Performance goes up, cost goes down
    • 3.3.3. Cost discussions: cell, pack, system
    • 3.3.4. Innovation important for cost reduction
    • 3.3.5. ESS cost assumptions
    • 3.3.6. Case study: German residential ESS cost decline
    • 3.3.7. Case study: California residential ESS cost decline

4. STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE: DRIVERS

  • 4.1. Introduction to ES drivers
  • 4.2. Overview of ES drivers
  • 4.3. Renewable energy self-consumption
  • 4.4. Principle of self-consumption
  • 4.5. ToU Arbitrage
  • 4.6. Feed-in-Tariff phase-outs
  • 4.7. Net metering phase-outs
  • 4.8. Power purchase agreements
  • 4.9. Summary of solar compensations
  • 4.10. Demand Charge Reduction
  • 4.11. Gas Peaker Plant Deferral
  • 4.12. Virtual Power Plants
  • 4.13. Virtual Power Plant companies
  • 4.14. Off-grid and remote applications
  • 4.15. Challenges in remote-region and island applications
  • 4.16. Other drivers

5. DRIVERS: ANCILLARY SERVICES ANCILLARY SERVICES SUPPORT RELIABLE OPERATION AS ELECTRICITY MOVES FROM GENERATION TO CONSUMERS.

  • 5.1. Overview of ancillary services
  • 5.2. Ancillary service requirements
  • 5.3. Frequency Regulation
  • 5.4. Levels of frequency regulation
  • 5.5. Load following
  • 5.6. Spinning and non-spinning reserve

6. REGIONAL ANALYSIS

  • 6.1. Energy storage deployment FTM and BTM by country
  • 6.2. U.S.
    • 6.2.1. Historic ES deployment in the U.S.
    • 6.2.2. US: Key Developments
    • 6.2.3. Hot states: mandates and targets overview
    • 6.2.4. California energy storage mandate
    • 6.2.5. Local mandates and targets
    • 6.2.6. List of ES mandates and targets
    • 6.2.7. PJM History
    • 6.2.8. PJM states and FR deployment
    • 6.2.9. Hawaii
    • 6.2.10. Hawaii PPAs
    • 6.2.11. Texas: RE history and the need for ES
    • 6.2.12. Texas ES developments
    • 6.2.13. Attractiveness of batteries by U.S. market 2019
    • 6.2.14. LiBs dominate
    • 6.2.15. Policy
    • 6.2.16. Investment Tax Credit
    • 6.2.17. California Self-generation Incentive Program
    • 6.2.18. C&I deployment in California
    • 6.2.19. Residential deployment in California
    • 6.2.20. SGIP spend on BTM storage
    • 6.2.21. Comparison of popular residential systems
    • 6.2.22. Maryland enacts a tax credit
    • 6.2.23. New Hampshire residential storage pilot
  • 6.3. UK
    • 6.3.1. Summary
    • 6.3.2. Capacity Markets: Explained
    • 6.3.3. Energy storage participation in the UK capacity market
    • 6.3.4. Batteries lose value after BEIS de-rating
    • 6.3.5. Storage de-rating factors
    • 6.3.6. Capacity markets funding paused by ECJ
    • 6.3.7. UK Enhanced Frequency Response
    • 6.3.8. Revenue stacking
    • 6.3.9. UK 'demand charge' uncertainty for BTM projects
    • 6.3.10. UK residential market lagging
  • 6.4. Germany
    • 6.4.1. FTM in Germany
    • 6.4.2. BTM energy storage in Germany
    • 6.4.3. KfW Bank Subsidy
    • 6.4.4. Solar-plus-storage reaches cost parity
    • 6.4.5. FiT expirations
    • 6.4.6. ESS price decline
    • 6.4.7. Market share of residential storage providers
    • 6.4.8. Sonnen growth
    • 6.4.9. Siemens enters German residential storage market
  • 6.5. Italy
    • 6.5.1. Italy residential solar market is saturated
    • 6.6. South Korea
    • 6.6.1. Rapid growth in South Korea
    • 6.6.2. Korea: Market Drivers
    • 6.6.3. Korea: ESS developer market share
    • 6.6.4. Battery fires in Korea
    • 6.6.5. Causes of battery fires
  • 6.7. Australia
    • 6.7.1. Residential storage is booming in Australia
    • 6.7.2. Australia storage policy and renewables targets
    • 6.7.3. Australia grid-level projects
  • 6.8. China
    • 6.8.1. Record year for stationary storage in China
    • 6.8.2. Grid-side energy storage growth in China
    • 6.8.3. China's Gigafactories
    • 6.8.4. Battery maker dominance shifts to China through 2020
  • 6.9. Others
    • 6.9.1. A good year for stationary energy storage in India

7. KEY ESS COMPANIES

  • 7.1. Convergence between solar and storage
  • 7.2. Downstream Energy Storage component vendors
  • 7.3. Global players in ESS
  • 7.4. Companies from other sectors jumping in
  • 7.5. Value Chain
  • 7.6. Most companies in assembly business
  • 7.7. Tesla's ESS business
  • 7.8. Powerwall and Powerpack
  • 7.9. Residential storage cost breakdown
  • 7.10. Major powerpack projects
  • 7.11. Tesla's ESS business
  • 7.12. Leclanché
  • 7.13. Green Charge Networks
  • 7.14. BYD
  • 7.15. BYD's layout is similar to Tesla
  • 7.16. Green Mountain Power
  • 7.17. Green Mountain Power's Innovation Strategy
  • 7.18. Ampard and Fenecon
  • 7.19. Stem
  • 7.20. Sonnen
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