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세계의 클라우드 게임 시장 - 시장 규모, 부문, 전망, 수익 예측(2022-2028년) : 제공별, 디바이스 유형별, 솔루션별, 지역별

Global Cloud Gaming Market Size, Segments, Outlook, and Revenue Forecast 2022-2028 by Offering, Device Type, Solution and Major Regions

발행일: | 리서치사: Ken Research Private Limited | 페이지 정보: 영문 150 Pages | 배송안내 : 1-2일 (영업일 기준)

※ 본 상품은 영문 자료로 한글과 영문 목차에 불일치하는 내용이 있을 경우 영문을 우선합니다. 정확한 검토를 위해 영문목차를 참고해주시기 바랍니다.

세계의 클라우드 게임의 시장 규모는 2022년부터 2028년까지의 예측 기간 동안 약 60%의 CAGR에서 지수적 성장을 보였으며, 2028년까지 약 200억 달러의 수익을 초과할 것으로 예상됩니다. 시장 성장을 뒷받침하는 주요 요인으로는 스마트폰 이용률 상승, 클라우드 게임 디바이스 및 서비스 이용 증가 등이 있습니다.

세계의 클라우드 게임(Cloud Gaming) 시장을 조사했으며, 있으며 시장 개요/시장 규모 및 예측/동향/촉진 요인·과제/제공별·디바이스 유형별·솔루션별·지역별 분석 및 경쟁 상황 등 정보를 제공합니다.

목차

범위

제1장 주요 요약

  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장 성장 실적 및 예측 하이라이트
  • 시장 동향, 과제, 경쟁의 하이라이트
  • 부문별 시장수익 점유율 하이라이트

제2장 시장 개요 및 성장에 영향을 미치는 주요 동향

  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장의 분류
  • 산업의 가치 사슬
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에서 주요 기업의 생태계
  • 정부 규제와 개발
  • 시장에 영향을 미치는 주요 촉진 요인과 과제
  • COVID-19가 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에 미치는 영향
  • 세계의 클라우드 게임의 성장 실적, 부문별(2017-2028년)
  • 세계의 클라우드 게임 시장 성장 실적 및 예측(2017-2028년)
  • 주요 포인트

제3장 세계의 시장 세분화, 제공별, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측

  • 시장의 정의-제공별 세분화
  • 시장 수익 점유율, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측, 제공별(2017-2028년)

제4장 세계 시장 세분화, 디바이스 유형별, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측

  • 시장 정의-디바이스 유형별 세분화
  • 시장 수익 점유율, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측, 디바이스 유형별(2017-2028년)

제5장 세계 시장 세분화, 솔루션별, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측

  • 시장 정의-솔루션별 세분화
  • 시장 수익 점유율, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측, 솔루션별(2017-2028년)

제6장 세계 시장 세분화, 최종 사용자별, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측

  • 시장 정의-최종 사용자별 세분화
  • 시장 수익 점유율, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측, 최종 사용자별(2017-2028년)

제7장 산업 및 경쟁 분석-경쟁 상황

  • 기업(경쟁)의 유형과 비즈니스 모델
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 경쟁사, Porter’s Five Forces
  • 시장 성장에 영향을 미치는 세계 클라우드 게임 부문의 주요 발전
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에서 주요 경쟁업체의 비교(2021년)
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에서 주요 경쟁업체의 비교, 제공 부문별(2021년)
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에서 주요 경쟁업체의 비교, 디바이스 유형별(2021년)
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에서 주요 경쟁업체의 비교, 솔루션별(2021년)
  • 세계 클라우드 게임 시장에서 주요 경쟁업체 비교, 최종 사용자별(2021년)
  • 경쟁 상황에서 주요 포인트

제8장 주요 경쟁사 개요(기업 개요, 제품 제공, SWOT 분석)

  • IBM Corporation
  • Activision Blizzard, Inc.
  • Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
  • Microsoft Corporation
  • Amazon.Inc.
  • Google Inc.
  • Intel Corporation
  • Meta Platforms, Inc.
  • Sony Corporation
  • NVIDIA Corporation
  • Tencent Holdings Ltd.
  • Blacknut

제9장 지역 분석과 주요 국가 시장 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측

  • 주요 국가의 거시경제요인 비교
  • 세계 시장의 수익 점유율, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측, 지역별
  • 주요 국가의 시장 분석, 성장 실적, 전망 및 예측
  • 북미-클라우드 게임 시장 분석
  • 유럽-클라우드 게임 시장 분석
  • 아시아 태평양-클라우드 게임 시장 분석
  • 남미, 중동, 아프리카-클라우드 게임 시장 분석

제10장 산업 전문가의 의견 및 전망

  • 시장의 현황과 장래의 전망에 관한 산업 전문가와 경영 간부의 주목할 만한 성명 및 인용

제11장 애널리스트의 제언

  • 확인된 주요 기회와 기회에서 얻을 수 있는 전략에 대한 애널리스트의 권장 사항

제12장 부록

LYJ 22.11.09

Market Overview

Cloud gaming is a process of playing video games in data centers using remote servers. There's no requirement to download and install games on a console or a PC. Instead, streaming service providers require a stable and smooth internet connection to send gaming information to a browser or an app installed on the recipient's device. The game is mostly played on the remote server, but one can communicate and watch with everything available locally on their device.

Cloud gaming mostly needs a subscription paid on a monthly basis or yearly basis to have a way into the content. The reality is that until now, streaming technology just was not up to the mark. But now due to faster internet speed, more access to more groups of people, and good hardware to deliver high-quality content. It's really like the perfect wave of features building up to cloud gaming finally getting the perfect treatment it deserves.

According to Ken Research Analysis, the Global Cloud Gaming Market is expected to witness exponential growth of around 60% CAGR over the next six years (2022-2028) and cross ~US$ 20 Bn revenue by 2028.

According to GSMA 2019, there were 5.2 billion smartphone connections globally and by 2025 smartphone usage is expected to reach around 80%. Due to this gaming developers are developing more mobile-based games. So that they can earn more revenue from people adopting the usage of smartphones.

Poor internet connectivity within some countries acts as a major barrier for the cloud gaming market as it requires high-speed internet with proper bandwidth and setting up such a connection might be expensive. So lag in gaming or proper responsiveness of the game while playing might be an issue.

The pandemic of COVID-19 has substantially accelerated the use of cloud gaming devices and services as due to lockdown restrictions people were mostly locked in their places and cloud gaming did not require any additional hardware and can be played almost on any device turning it into their pass times during lockdown.

Scope of the Report

The Global Cloud Market is segmented by Offering, Device Type, Solution, End User and Geography. In addition, the report also covers the market size for each of the four regions of the Global Cloud gaming markets. The revenue used to size and forecast the market for each segment is US$ billion.

By Offering

Infrastructure

Gaming Platform Services

By Device Type

Smartphones

Tablets

Gaming Consoles

PCs & Laptops

Smart TVs

Head-Mounted Displays

By Solution

Video Streaming

File Streaming

By End User Segment

Casual Gamers

Avid Gamers

Hardcore Gamers

By Geography

NORTH AMERICA (USA, Canada, Mexico)

LAMEA (Latin America, Middle East, Africa)

EUROPE (UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Rest of Europe)

ASIA-PACIFIC (China, India, South Korea, Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Rest of Asia Pacific)

Key Trends by Market Segment

By Offering: In the Global Cloud gaming market, the Gaming Platform Services segment is the fastest growing during the forecast period.

Gaming Platform Services reduce the limitations based on graphics performance, storage requirements, and processing power and provide an amazing gaming experience.

With the help of Gaming Platform Services gamers don't have to wait for downloading and installation of the game which provides an added advantage.

In 2022, Meta launched the game development platform Crayta to Facebook Gaming's cloud streaming service that lets one build and play games with friends in real time.

By Device: Tablets, PC & Laptops segment holds the largest market share in 2021

Early acquisition of Tablets, PC & Laptops led to the development of innovative games as gamers were already using PC & tablets from before so it has already captured the market and these devices are expected to still capture the largest market share because devices are constantly updating their configuration for better performance.

In June 2022, Microsoft launched Xbox Cloud Gaming in New Zealand and Argentina. Ultimate subscribers of XBOX Game Pass can stream more than 100 games to phones, tablets, PCs, and Samsung TVs. Xbox Cloud Gaming is now available in 28 countries and is powered by custom Xbox Series X consoles.

The smartphone segment is forecasted to be the fastest growing Device segment in the cloud gaming market.

Low internet cost subscription and proper investment in the 5G technology increases the possibility of using Smartphones by people which boosts the potential of Cloud Gaming solutions.

The adoption of Smartphones is expected to reach 85% by 2025 from 81% in 2021 according to Global System for Mobile Communications Association (GSMA) which also attracts gaming companies to focus more on mobile-based games.

By Solution: The File Streaming Solution segment of the Global Cloud Gaming Market is expected to have the largest market share during the forecast period

This technology allows players to have access to the game after downloading a small number of files to their devices. It allows game developers to decrease the cost of media production and send patches to gamers.

The growth of the File Streaming Segment is mainly due to its ability to perform after downloading a little portion of the file the gamers provide file patches to the developers for reducing the amount of cost of the media item.

It can be used or played on any kind of device without the help of any technology due to which the latency issue has been reduced to a high level thus enhancing the video streaming while enjoying the game.

In 2022, NVIDIA Corporation launched an upgraded GeForce RTX 3080 graphics card with 12GB of memory for the fastest frame rates, low latency, and highest resolutions for enhanced video streaming in the Cloud Gaming Market.

By End-user: Hardcore gamers segment of the Global Cloud Gaming market is estimated to account for the largest market share in 2022

Hardcore gamers play games mostly as a hobby and spend a large amount of money and significant of time on them.

Another important reason is that improvement in 5G resulting in high speed is leading to more adoption of cloud gaming by Hardcore gamers.

Driven by the increase of powerful smartphones, there has been a rise of 40% in hardcore gamers in India post-COVID.

The Avid gamers segment is forecasted to be the fastest growing segment from 2022 to 2028

They mostly depend on Youtube gaming for reviews and as the popularity of video games is increasing, gamers are getting addicted to mobiles for their satisfaction.

By Geography: The North America Cloud Gaming Market is forecasted to be the fastest growing market during 2022-2028.

Cloud gaming market growth is mainly driven due to an increase in people's inexpensiveness in the region and the region's strong economic foundation, combined with updated technologies.

Furthermore, free and mobile games are boosting the region's market growth. The high expendable income is driving growth, along with the updated technologies.

According to NewZoo number of gamers in North America in 2020 was 210 Million.

The Asia-Pacific cloud gaming market is estimated to account for the largest market share in 2022.

Asia-Pacific is set to be the most appealing market for business expansion for key shareholders across the globe.

The increasing internet-dependent population, initiatives by the government, and financial growth are a few important market factors that are making Asia-Pacific an emerging market for all kinds of players.

According to NewZoo number of gamers in Asia pacific in 2020 was 1447 Million.

According to NewZoo over 55% of the world's three billion gamers will be from Asia Pacific by 2024.

Competitive Landscape

The Global Cloud Gaming Market is highly competitive with more than 500 players which include globally diversified players, regional players as well as a large number of country-niche players in the Cloud Gaming market. Most of the country-niche players are start-ups in Cloud Gaming.

The large global players comprise about 10% in terms of the number of competitors followed by country niche players which account for ~65% of the number of the competitors. Most of the country-niche players are start-ups. Some of these who successfully evolve to create application-specific solutions often get acquired by large global players seeking to grow and diversify quickly.

The Leading Country Niche players such as Parsec Cloud, Inc., Shadow, Rainway, and Ubitus K.K. are highly focused on providing a significant number of Cloud Gaming Solutions.

Recent Developments Related to Major Players

In 2021, NVIDIA Corporation collaborated with Electronic Arts Inc. by bringing HIT Games to increase GeForce NOW's gaming platform

In 2021, Blacknut collaborated with Communications and Entertainment Group NOS to provide a proper gaming experience with the help of 5G across Portugal and also aims to offer around 450+ games over the 5G network.

In 2021, Tencent launched Level Infinite to deliver high-quality games to a global audience by offering technical and production assistance.

In 2022, NVIDIA Corporation launched an upgraded GeForce RTX 3080 graphics card with 12GB of memory for the fastest frame rates, low latency, and highest resolutions.

In 2022, Tencent Games decided to Publish PUBG Mobile and PUBG Mobile Lite under Banner of Level Infinite.

Conclusion

The Global Cloud Gaming Market is forecasted to continue an exponential growth that is witnessed since 2017. It is primarily driven by 5G technology's low latency capability and the increasing number of gamers across the globe. Though the market is highly competitive with over 500 participants, few global players control the dominant share, and regional players also hold a significant share.

Note: This is an upcoming/planned report, so the figures quoted here for market size estimate, forecast, growth, segment share and competitive landscape are based on initial findings and might vary slightly in the actual report. Also, any required customizations can be covered to the best feasible extent for Pre-booking clients and report delivered within maximum 2 working weeks.

Key Topics Covered in the Report

Snapshot of Global Cloud Gaming Market

Industry Value Chain and Ecosystem Analysis

Market size and Segmentation of the Global Cloud Gaming Market

Historic Growth of Overall Global Cloud Gaming Market and Segments

Competition Scenario of the Market and Key Developments of Competitors

Porter's 5 Forces Analysis of Global Cloud Gaming Industry

Overview, Product Offerings, and SWOT Analysis of Key Competitors

COVID19 Impact on the Overall Global Cloud Gaming Market

Future Market Forecast and Growth Rates of the Total Global Cloud Gaming Market and by Segments

Market Size of Application / End User Segments with Historical CAGR and Future Forecasts

Analysis of Cloud Gaming Market in Major Global Countries

Major Production/Supply and Consumption/Demand Hubs in Each Major Country

Major Country-wise Historic and Future Market Growth Rates of the Total Market and Segments

Overview of Notable Emerging Competitor Companies within Each Major Country

Major Companies Profiled in the Report

IBM Corporation

Activision Blizzard, Inc.

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.

Microsoft Corporation

Amazon Inc.

Google Inc.

Intel Corporation

Meta Platforms, Inc.

Sony Corporation

NVIDIA Corporation

Tencent Holdings Ltd.

Blacknut

Notable Emerging Companies Mentioned in the Report

Parsec Cloud, Inc.

Ubitus K.K.

Shadow

Playgiga

Gameye B.V

Rainway

AccelByte

Playcast-media

liquidsky.com

Key Target Audience - Organizations and Entities Who Can Benefit by Subscribing This Report

Cloud Gaming Solution Providers

Cloud Gaming Infrastructure Providers

Software Solutions Providers

Software Service Providers

Potential Investors for Cloud Gaming

Cloud Service Providers

Gaming Platform Service Providers

Gaming Companies

Online Gamers

Gaming Developers

Gaming Publishers

Time Period Captured in the Report

Historical Period: 2019H-2021H

Forecast Period: 2022F-2028F

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Study Period of this Market Report?

The Global Cloud Gaming Market is covered from 2017- 2028 in this report, which includes a forecast for the period 2022-2028.

What is the Future Growth Rate of the Global Cloud Gaming Market?

The Global Cloud Gaming Market is expected to witness a CAGR of around 60% over the next 6 years.

What are the Key Factors Driving the Global Cloud Gaming Market?

5G technology's low latency capability and the increasing number of gamers across the globe.

Which is the largest solution Segment within the Global Cloud Gaming Market?

File Streaming Solution Segment holds the largest share of the Global Cloud Gaming Market.

Who are the Key Players in Global Cloud Gaming Market?

IBM Corporation, Activision Blizzard, Inc., Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, Amazon.com Inc., Google Inc., Intel Corporation, Meta Platforms, Inc., Sony Corporation, NVIDIA Corporation, Tencent Holdings Ltd., and Blacknut among others are the major companies operating in Global Cloud Gaming Market.

Table Of Contents

Scope:

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1 Highlights of Global Cloud Gaming Market Historic Growth & Forecast
  • 1.2 Highlights of Market Trends, Challenges, and Competition
  • 1.3 Highlights of Market Revenue Share by Segments

2. Market Overview and Key Trends Impacting Growth

  • 2.1 Global Cloud Gaming Market Taxonomy
  • 2.2 Industry Value Chain
  • 2.3 The Ecosystem of Major Entities in the Global Cloud Gaming Market
  • 2.4 Government Regulations & Developments
  • 2.5 Key Growth Drivers & Challenges Impacting the Market
  • 2.6 COVID-19 Impact on Global Cloud Gaming Market
  • 2.7 Total Global Cloud Gaming Historic Growth by Segment Type, 2017-2028

2.7.1 By Offering

2.7.2 By Device Type

2.7.3 By Solution

2.7.4 By End-User

2.7.5 By Region

  • 2.8 Total Global Cloud Gaming Market Historic Growth and Forecast, 2017-2028
  • 2.9 Key Takeaways

3. Global - Market Segmentation by Offering, Historic Growth, Outlook & Forecasts

  • 3.1 Market Definition - Segmentation by Offering
  • 3.2 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Offering, 2017-2028

3.2.1 Infrastructure

3.2.2 Gaming Platform Services

3.2.3 Key Takeaways from Market Segmentation by Offering

4. Global - Market Segmentation by Device Type, Historic Growth, Outlook & Forecasts

  • 4.1 Market Definition - Segmentation by Device Type
  • 4.2 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Device Type, 2017-2028

4.2.1 Smartphones

4.2.2 Tablets

4.2.3 Gaming Consoles

4.2.4 PCs & laptops

4.2.5 Smart TVs

4.2.6 Head-Mounted Displays

4.2.7 Key Takeaways from Market Segmentation by Device Type

5. Global - Market Segmentation by Solution, Historic Growth, Outlook & Forecasts

  • 5.1 Market Definition - Segmentation by Solution
  • 5.2 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Solution, 2017-2028

5.2.1 Video Streaming

5.2.2 File Streaming

5.2.3 Key Takeaways from Market Segmentation by Solution

6. Global - Market Segmentation by End User, Historic Growth, Outlook & Forecasts

  • 6.1 Market Definition - Segmentation by End-User
  • 6.2 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by End User, 2017-2028

6.2.1 Casual Gamers

6.2.2 Avid Gamers

6.2.3 Hardcore Gamers

6.2.4 Key Takeaways from Market Segmentation by End-User

7. Industry / Competition Analysis - Competitive Landscape

  • 7.1 Types of Players (Competitors) & Business Models
  • 7.2 Porter's 5 Forces Analysis of Global Cloud Gaming Competitors
  • 7.3 Key Developments in the Global Cloud Gaming Sector Impacting Market Growth
  • 7.4 Comparison of Leading Competitors within Global Cloud Gaming Market, 2021
  • 7.5 Comparison of Leading Competitors within Global Cloud Gaming Market by Coverage of Offering Segments, 2021
  • 7.6 Comparison of Leading Competitors within Global Cloud Gaming Market by Coverage of Device Type, 2021
  • 7.7 Comparison of Leading Competitors within Global Cloud Gaming Market by Coverage of Solution, 2021
  • 7.8 Comparison of Leading Competitors within Global Cloud Gaming Market by Coverage of End-User, 2021
  • 7.9 Key Takeaways from Competitive Landscape

8. Key Competitor Profiles (Company Overview, Product Offerings, SWOT Analysis)

  • 8.1 IBM Corporation
  • 8.2 Activision Blizzard, Inc.
  • 8.3 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
  • 8.4 Microsoft Corporation
  • 8.5 Amazon.Inc.
  • 8.6 Google Inc.
  • 8.7 Intel Corporation
  • 8.8 Meta Platforms, Inc.
  • 8.9 Sony Corporation
  • 8.10 NVIDIA Corporation
  • 8.11 Tencent Holdings Ltd.
  • 8.12 Blacknut

9. Geographic Analysis & Major Countries Market Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts

  • 9.1 Major Countries Comparison of Macroeconomic Factors
  • 9.2 Global- Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook and Forecasts by Geography, 2017-2028
  • 9.3 Major Countries Market Analysis, Historic Growth, Outlook & Forecasts
  • 9.4 North America - Cloud Gaming Market Analysis

9.4.1 Major Production and Consumption Hubs in North America

9.4.2 Notable Emerging Cloud gaming Companies in North America

9.4.3 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook and Forecasts by Offering, 2017-2028

9.4.4 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Device Type, 2017-2028

9.4.5 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Solution, 2017-2028

9.4.6 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by End-User, 2017-2028

9.4.7 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Major Countries, 2017-2028

USA

Canada

Mexico

  • 9.5 Europe - Cloud Gaming Market Analysis

9.5.1 Major Production and Consumption Hubs in Europe

9.5.2 Notable Emerging Cloud Gaming Companies in Europe

9.5.3 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook and Forecasts by Offering, 2017-2028

9.5.4 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Device Type, 2017-2028

9.5.5 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Solution, 2017-2028

9.5.6 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by End-User, 2017-2028

9.5.7 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Major Countries, 2017-2028

UK

France

Germany

Spain

Italy

Rest Of Europe

  • 9.6 Asia Pacific - Cloud Gaming Market Analysis

9.6.1 Major Production and Consumption Hubs in the Asia Pacific

9.6.2 Notable Emerging Cloud Gaming Companies in the Asia Pacific

9.6.3 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook and Forecasts by Offering, 2019-2028

9.6.4 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Device Type, 2019-2028

9.6.5 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Solution, 2019-2028

9.6.6 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by End-User, 2019-2028

9.6.7 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Major Countries, 2017-2028

China

India

Japan

Indonesia

South Korea

Australia

Rest Of Asia Pacific

  • 9.7 LAMEA - Cloud Gaming Market Analysis

9.7.1 Major Production and Consumption Hubs in LAMEA

9.7.2 Notable Emerging Cloud Gaming Companies in LAMEA

9.7.3 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook and Forecasts by Offering, 2017-2028

9.7.4 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Device Type, 2017-2028

9.7.5 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Solution, 2017-2028

9.7.6 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by End-User, 2017-2028

9.7.7 Market Revenue Share, Historic Growth, Outlook, and Forecasts by Sub-regions, 2017-2028

Latin America

Middle East

Africa

10. Industry Expert's Opinions/Perspectives

  • 10.1 Notable Statements/Quotes from Industry Experts and C-Level Executives on Current Status and Future Outlook of the Market

11. Analyst Recommendation

  • 10.1 Analyst Recommendations on Identified Major Opportunities and Potential Strategies to Gain from Opportunities

12. Appendix

  • 12.1 Research Methodology - Market Size Estimation, Forecast, and Sanity Check Approach
  • 12.2 Sample Discussion Guide
  • 12.3 Disclaimer
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